The Living Atom Theory

 

The Living Atom Theory

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Description (Version 2.4)

  • This on-line textbook by Etienne Szekely, P.Eng. describes a fascinating and revolutionary theory filled with scientific ideas that boldly challenge the established modern science.

  • The Living Atom Theory, which contradicts the officially accepted theories of physics, is guaranteed to enlighten you by provoking your imagination and creativity. It is an educational "must-read" for open-minded teachers, students, scientists and engineers! Enjoy the world of alternate physics theory and ultimate intellectual stimulation!!

Table of Contents

  • The Living Atom Theory (Abstract)

    • Abstract

    • Etienne Szekely

    • Nomination

  • 01 |PREFACE

    • Foreword

    • The Pollution Problem

    • The Atom and the Infinity

  • 02 |EPPURE SI MUOVE

    • Galilei

    • Living Atom Theory

    • The Marvel of Gas-Molecules

    • Temperature Organ

    • Equilibrium of Gas-Molecules

    • The Pressure Problem

    • The Orbits of the Planets

    • The Tide Raising Forces

  • 03 |THE MAGNIFICENT SECONDARY FREE ATOM A-10

    • Introduction

    • The Buoyancy Problem

    • The Electromagnetic Wave

    • The Different Secondary Free Atoms

    • The Stable -10-s

    • The Outside Type Unstable -10-s

    • The Discharging Tubes

    • The Inside Type Unstable -10-s

    • The Different Subatomic Particles

    • The Power of the n Muscles

    • The Odour Problem

  • 04 |THE MOVEMENTS

    • Introduction

    • Action of Forces Created by the Muscles +1

    • The Sound

    • Action of the 00 Created Forces

    • Action of the -10 Created Forces

    • Action of the -20 Created Forces

    • Action of the 0a Created Forces

    • Forces Created by Movements

    • The Rotation

  • 05 |THE CORIOLIS FORCES

    • Introduction

    • Inertia Forces

    • Introducing the Coriolis Forces

    • Action of the Coriolis Reaction Force

    • The Partial Coriolis Forces

    • The Gyrocompass

    • Conclusion

  • 06 |THE PARADOX OF MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE

    • E = m x c2

    • Einstein's Strange Idea

    • Conclusion

  • 07 |EVALUATION OF NEWMAN'S ENERGY MACHINE

    • Introduction

    • The Magnetic Flux Lines

    • My Own Experiments and Measurements

    • Conclusion

  • 08 |MORE ABOUT THE LIVING ATOMS

    • Introduction

    • Living Atom Theory

    • More About the Free Atom

    • The Concept of Energy

  • 09 |THE RADIATIONS

    • Introduction

    • The Big Family of Radiations

    • The Harmless Radiations

    • The Human-Invented Radiations

    • The Harmful Radiations

    • Shielding Against Harmful Radiations

    • Conclusion

  • 10 |ANOTHER LOOK AT ELECTRICITY

    • Introduction

    • Electric Technology

    • Conclusion

  • 11 |THE PARADOX OF MOVING ELECTRONS

    • The Paradox of Moving Electrons

  • 12 |WHAT IS MASS IN PHYSICS?

    • What is Mass in Physics?

  • 13 |THE MAGNETIC FORCES

    • The Magnetic Forces

  • 14 |THE SOUND

    • The Sound

    • The Structure of the Sound Wave

    • The Sound and the Energy

    • The Sound and the Vacuum

  • AA |APPENDIX

    • Summary of the Signs

    • Enlarged Cross Section of the Atmosphere

  • ZZ |POSTFACE

    • Personal Opinion

    • References

    • Acknowledgement

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  • Copyright © 1996 by Szekely, Etienne

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    • Produced in Canada.

  • ISBN 0-929105-10-9

  • 2003-10-24T00:06:00,0

The Living Atom Theory (Abstract)

Abstract

  • The Living Atom Theory's hypothesis puts Nature into the perspective of macrocosm and microcosm in order to understand its mysteries. For example, the solar system is an intelligent living atom, just as atoms in the periodic table and subatomic particles are.

  • Today's modern science deals only with the subset of the Living Atom Theory to explain the mechanism of Nature's phenomena. In addition, many paradoxes of physics are exposed in this text. The Living Atom Theory proves that the Kinetic Theory of Gases is nothing but mathematical acrobatics. Explanation of the tide-raising forces is one of the most eloquent proof supporting the Living Atom Theory.

  • The Living Atom Theory can logically explain not only electric and magnetic phenomena, but also phenomena which conventional physics treats as non-newtonian exceptions such as inertia force, Coriolis effect, even odour and telepathy. The free atoms are responsible for gravitational field, buoyancy, electromagnetic wave, radiation, etc. The rotation of the earth is caused by the fact that planet earth is a marvellous Nature-created electric motor.

  • Einstein's Theory of Relativity is a brilliant mathematical exhibition, but it has some contradictions and weaknesses. The Living Atom Theory can explain why the Law of Energy Conservation does not apply to Newman's machine which is an electric motor working with 110% efficiency. What we call "energy" is a useful unit of measurement, but it does not exist in Nature. Telecommunication signals propagate through relay stations, not by photons and electrons that travel with the velocity of light.

  • The Living Atom Theory introduces the concept of "discharging tubes" to explain gravitational field, magnetic flux lines and electric circuits. Each living atom is equipped with organs which cause temperature phenomena as well as rotation and orientation of globes. Radiation is a natural "transpiration" of a living atom.

01 |PREFACE

Foreword

  • It is a sad disappointment for a retired professional engineer to find out that his lifetime professional work was unnecessary and worthless. That is what happened to me when after nearly 40 years of engineering experiences, I came to the conclusion that we are living the last days of our industrial civilisation. In spite of an illusive public opinion, I must state that we are on the brink of a complete economic and industrial collapse, which is even desirable in order to save human life on our planet.

  • To support my strange and quasi tragical statement, I should first of all analyse the most crucial problem of our modern time.

The Pollution Problem

  • Nearly everybody is concerned about it! The number of environmentalists grows like mushrooms. Nevertheless, the whole movement looks like a chaos. Being split in numerous fractions, we are working like cogs in a system, and one cog does not understand what the other cog is doing. Nobody knows how the whole "machine" works.

  • Our ignorance is even more pronounced by asking if one kind of pollution is more or less dangerous than the other. Thus, let us ask from a number of environmentalists whether the nuclear technology is more or less dangerous than the acid rain. Their answers clearly show that they are or guessing or they are influenced by the fallacious promotion of the nuclear industry.

  • However, it would be easy and logical to introduce a general and basic statement in which we could classify all the different pollution and environmental problems.

  • With our excessive scientific and technological activities, we immoderately infringed on Nature's laws. The result is an imminent destruction of our ecosystem, our health and our life. This frightening scenario is caused partly by our greedy profit-making ambition and partly by our scientific ignorance.

  • It is evident that the only remedy would be to start a new way of life, much more in harmony with Nature. But to do so, first of all, we should know better Nature's laws and Nature's mechanism. In our atomic age, this is a new and crucial challenge for humankind, which was quasi neglected by our modern science. Accepting this challenge, I followed Goethe's dream by seeking the "light" from a scientific "obscurity".

The Atom and the Infinity

  • According to modern scientific thought, Nature's mechanism is transcendent and mysterious. Often, we can describe it only with mathematical deductions. I can not agree with this statement. The mystery was mainly introduced with the concept of "energy", which is a very clever human-invented idea indeed, but which does not exist in Nature.

  • Thus, if we say that electricity is a form of energy, then we explain one mystery with another mystery. As for the mathematical deductions, if their starting point is wrong, then the result is a scientific bluff or a scientific illusion. For me, to understand how Nature works is an eternal jigsaw puzzle, where we should often disregard or change some wrong pieces.

  • Everybody, who meditates about natural sciences, is sometimes more or less inspired by some geniuses of our history. I should admit that I, too, was strongly inspired by some ancient Greek and Roman philosophers (like Epicurus, Democritos, Lucretius). They firstly introduced the marvellous elementary unit which we call atom. Similarly, eminent philosophers like Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), Isaac Newton (1642-1727) inspired me to endorse the concept of infinity as a really existing natural entity. Pascal's basic idea "Man is the centre between everything and nothing" introduced the concepts of Macrocosm and Microcosm. Each theory, which tries to limit the dimensions or the varieties of Nature-created units, fails sooner or later.

  • The existence of the atom, and only its existence, was definitely proved with the discovery of the radioactivity and nuclear power. Modern theories describe the atom with the help of the unreal "phantom" of energy. Consequently, its picture remains a dark mystery.

  • Considering the hypothesis of a working intelligent atom, we should admit that such theory belongs to the realm of the philosophy. This means that everybody has the right to believe it or not. I always sought after a missing link which would allow us to classify my intelligent living atom as the more realistic science of Physics. I found this link by introducing a special and not yet discovered atom, which in my writings is called "free atom". You can find complete description and analysis of this free atom in the texts which follow.

  • In this foreword, I only mention that numerous useful experiments can be realised which prove the existence of the free atom. Furthermore, the free atom clearly and simply explains the common phenomena of Physics (like electricity, heat, light, gravitation, radiation, etc.), and eliminates the paradoxical phantom of energy.

  • Today's spectacular remote-controlled spacecraft are trying to give us answers concerning the structure of our solar system. The "Voyager" research is a spectacular "show business" indeed. But instead of "answers", we always get more mysterious "questions", revealing our ignorance in natural sciences. The free atom (as an elementary component of the gravitational field) will give answers to the questions.

  • Science associated the concept of atoms with the chemical elements and classified them in the periodical table of the elements. In order to match my living atoms with the concept of infinity, we have to deal with a series of atoms which are displayed between infinite big and infinite little. In the texts, I use capital letters to signal the atoms, and a special index at the bottom (like -1, 0, +1) shows their relative position in the Macrocosm or Microcosm. An index 0 at the top is the sign of a free atom (like -10, 00, +10). I use a special sign for rotating globes (like -1, 0, +1). The plural form of these atoms and globes are indicated by suffix "-s".

  • My writings and articles are "mosaic" pieces dealing with different aspects of crucial environmental problems, and revealing some fallacious scientific theories. These erroneous theories are the driving forces behind our destructive technology.

  • I acknowledge that such unorthodox scientific ideas will not be accepted by the present scientific establishment or by scientists, who firmly believe in what they learned in the schools. I am talking against their interest. And in our materialistic world, people react angrily if their job or their profit is jeopardised.

  • However, I am glad to know that time is working for me. Gradually, always fewer people have confidence in a science and technology which discovered and marketed products like PCB, DDT, fluorocarbon, dioxin, furan, plutonium, tritium, thalidomide, etc. Consequently, it is possible that sometimes sincere environmentalists will understand and endorse such scientific ideas, and they will promote them by using a more attractive style than mine.

  • I will die with the hope that our children and grandchildren will have a tolerable quality of life in a biosphere which still could be saved from total destruction.

02 |EPPURE SI MUOVE

Galilei

  • It was nearly 400 years ago when the famous Italian physicist Galilei was condemned by the Catholic Church Inquisition. With the help of his telescope, he intended to prove the rotation of planet earth and its revolution around the sun.

  • In the 17th century, it was still a sin and a crime to contradict some teachings of the Bible. This scripture clearly introduces the earth as the centre of the universe, and supports the egotistic human philosophy by stating that God created the human after his own picture, and we should dominate the rest of the creatures (Genesis 1:26). Galilei was condemned, and he was obliged to publicly renounce his findings and theories. There is an anecdote which says that, after his condemnation, the frustrated old scientist exclaimed "Eppure si muove" (However it moves).

  • Today, the so-called Ptolemaic geocentric theory is obsolete, and the Bible lost its scientific value. The Vatican officially apologised for the injustice committed against Galilei. Modern science even found that the whole solar system is just an insignificant little unit revolving around the galaxy. Looking in the direction of the infinite microcosm and the infinite macrocosm, we find the existence of an infinite number of rotating and revolving gyroscopes like our planet earth.

  • Meanwhile, the 400 years were not enough for humankind to understand the mechanism of the planets rotating and revolving motions. Consulting the scientific textbooks or the encyclopedias, we sometimes read about a hypothesis that the earth rotates due to its original inertia, without friction, in a perfect vacuum. Such idealised motion is introduced in Newton's first law of motions. We can also read about a scientific guess telling that, due to some tidal frictions, the earth rotation gets slower and the days get longer with 0.001 second each century?! Such simpleminded guess is irrelevant because there will probably no longer be homosapiens to measure a daily increase after 100000 years (1 second increase).

  • The inertia type rotation is much more seriously contradicted by the different movements of the atmosphere. Let us start to meditate after watching the meteorological predictions in the television news. The main systems are generally travelling from west to east. In the high altitude of the stratosphere (above 10 kilometre), the winds are blowing from west to east. This means that the higher atmosphere is rotating faster than the rigid globe does!! Even more paradoxical is the fact that the atmosphere of planet Venus rotates in the opposite direction to its globe rotation.

  • In another study entitled "The Living Planet Earth", I proved that the regular passat winds near the equator are seriously braking the planet's rotation. Due to this braking force, the inertia type rotation would be completely stopped after about 90000 years. Each year, we would have a 6-minutes-longer day, and such a change would surely be registered by the historians.

  • The idea of an inertia type earth rotation is a nonsense. There must exist a Nature-created mechanism, a kind of organ, which secures the continuous rotation, and which orients the planet's axis to the most favourable position.

  • Once we explained the electric and magnetic phenomena with the help of the Living Atom Theory, the rotation of the earth becomes simple and clear. Our planet is a perfect Nature-created electric motor. Furthermore, the rotating magnetic fields even explain the additional forces which oblige some high altitude air molecules to move faster than the globe does. We can also explain the interesting opposite-direction movement of the atmosphere on planet Venus.

  • I consider that the details of this natural electric motor should be analysed in a different chapter dealing with other electric and magnetic phenomena.

  • In this study, I deal with the structure of the atmosphere, with the earth's revolution around the sun, and with the phenomenon of tides. Explanation of the tide-raising forces is one of the most eloquent proof supporting the Living Atom Theory.

Living Atom Theory

  • First of all, I should repeat the basic principles of the Living Atom Theory.

  • The starting hypothesis consists of the following three points.

    1. Our solar system is a huge atom. It has the same structure as an atom having the same number of planetary units (electrons).

Remark: The name "electron" is misleading. It is introduced by the present confused science as a packet of electric charge which travels and transports energy in the space. I prefer to use the name "atomic planet" or "planetary unit".

    1. There are atoms without atomic planets. In my studies, I call them "free atoms" and I use the name "heavy atom" for those with planetary units. Only the heavy atom is able to form molecules, matters and living bodies.

    2. All atoms are equipped with organs (like sensors, evaluators and muscles). With the help of those organs, they defend their living equilibrium. In other words, they defend their lives. Each living unit on the earth is equipped with such organs. I think it is logical if I gave the name Living Atom for my theory.

Remark: Some people with egotistic human mentality criticise the name Living Atom. They are sometimes asking me about the spiritual or sexual life of the atoms. In my opinion, dealing with natural science, we should consider as living units all those who are able to individually create movements and accelerations. Let us forget about their sexual life.

  • All matter and living body in the solar system is built up of heavy atoms. Thus, the heavy atom is an elementary unit of the solar system. The similarity between the solar system and the heavy atom obliges us to introduce a secondary atom which is the elementary unit of the heavy atom. Then, the secondary atom must also have its elementary unit. So we discover a tremendous variety of atomic units on different "steps" looking in the direction of microcosm and macrocosm.

  • At this point, I realised that it is absolutely necessary to introduce a kind of indexing system, to give symbols for the different atoms in order to follow my deductions. I gave the symbol 0 for the heavy atom (which today is considered as the elementary unit of matter), and I gave the symbol +1 for the solar system. Then, we will have a series of atoms like

-n, ..., -1, 0, +1, ..., +n

and we can state that the n is an elementary unit of n+1.

  • Considering the free atoms, we have the series

-n0, ..., -10, 00, +10, ..., +n0

using index 0 at the top for the free atoms. With such symbols, we can say that our solar system +1 is built up of 0-s and 00-s. Similarly, heavy atom 0 is built up of -1-s and -10-s. The free atoms 00 and -10 are the most important units in the universe. The gravitational field of the solar system +1 is formed by 00-s. The gravitational field of the heavy atom 0 and the free atom 00 is formed by -10-s.

  • In order to simplify things, we always indicate the whole series with the general signs n and n0 where is a whole number between 0 (zero) and + (infinity). This is a very interesting simplification. We can state that the universe is built up of n-s and n0-s.

Remark: One should not be afraid of this infinite variety of atoms. By analysing the different activities between -2 and +2 (or -20 and +20), we can understand all the common phenomena which a human being can experience.

  • The most important part of each atom is its sun. I did not find the necessity to give a special symbol for the suns. However, the planetary units of the heavy atoms n will be indicated by the Greek letter and the whole series by

-n, ..., -1 0 +1, ..., +n

  • A human being is living in an atom +1 on the rigid surface of a globe +1. The planets 0 (electrons) of the atom 0 are playing an important rôle in the chemical and electrical phenomena.

  • In our living space +1, we find two kinds of units which are agglomerations of the heavy atoms 0-s. The inanimate matter will be called +1, and the living entities of our fauna will have the symbol +1. The +1-s are able to individually create accelerations. Here, too, we have the series

-n, ..., -1, 0, +1, ..., +n

and

-n, ..., -1, 0, +1, ..., +n

Remark: In the Physics textbooks, the letter generally means a value of mass. In my writings, n and n are just symbols. I use signs |n| and |n| if I deal with the value of mass.

  • Let us do a little exercise. We are +1-s living on the rigid surface of a +1. Our activities are observed as a kind of phenomenon by entities +2-s living on a planetary unit +2. On the other hand, the activities of the 0-s on the planets 0 are creating a phenomenon which we call light. This interesting deduction could help to diminish the existing arrogant human mentality.

  • We know that the science called Physics deals only with the units +1-s. I am convinced that we will never understand the mechanism of Nature if we do not consider the activities of the n-s.

  • Finally, we should give symbols for the two main organs which govern the life of the n-s and n0-s.

    1. The first organ has the symbol na. It could be called temperature organ because some activities of the 0a-s are measured by a human being in temperature degrees. With the help of the na-s, we can explain all the phenomena in connection with the heat problem. It is important to realise that the na works only on the sun of the heavy atom n. It is the most important organ of the heavy atom.

    2. The second important atomic organ has the symbol nb. It assures the rotation and the orientation of all the globes (the suns of n, n0 and the n). The orientation organ is extremely important and strong in the free atoms n0. We can not deny its existence as we observe the wonders done by the flowers and other vegetations. Thus, the rotating globes of the universe are transformed into intelligent living gyroscopes, and one of them is our planet earth.

The Marvel of Gas-Molecules

  • The following study of the gas-molecules and of the atmosphere is an excellent example of the work done by the 0a and 0b.

  • We call molecule the most simple agglomeration of the atom 0, an elementary inanimate matter with the symbol +1. It is a kind of "confederation" of several 0-s, but there are some rare exceptions of gas-molecules with a single atom (like Argon, Helium). Inside the volume of a molecule, there are only the suns of the 0-s, the globes of the atomic planets 0 and the secondary free atoms -10, forming the gravitational field of 0.

  • If we want to visualise the molecules in a volume of gas or air, then we should imagine spheres of diameter where the distance between them is about 100 x , as shown in Figure 02-01. With such a picture, scientists should ask the question: What kind of medium is between the widely separated gas-molecules?

  • It is interesting to note that the English physicist Sir James Jeans (1877-1946) mentioned in his book "Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases" that gas-molecules are embedded in some "fields of forces?" and the comportment of the gases depends mainly on the characteristic of those fields.

  • The Living Atom Theory gives the most logical explanation. The gas-molecules are embedded in a "sea" of free atoms 00.

  • The 00 is a tiny little living gyroscope which is protected by its gravitational field, an elastic medium made up of free atoms -10, as shown in Figure 02-02. The 00 is filling up all the space which is not occupied by 0-s. The protected gyroscopes are kept in distance, and they can work properly. The gyroscope is animated by the powerful organ 0b. This orientation organ positions the rotating axe in a direction where the fastest rotation is assured. The living equilibrium of all the free atoms n0 depends on the fast rotation of their gyroscope type suns.

  • There is always an affinity between the 00 and its "big brother/sister" 0. Near a huge agglomeration of 0-s (like our planet earth), the 00-s are strongly tied to the earth, but even a tiny unit of molecule can influence the pattern created by the oriented 00 gyroscopes. This situation is visualised in Figure 02-03, and such a pattern acts like a stretched rubber band creating a force on the molecule and a reaction force on the opposite side of the earth.

Remark: We should realise the "out of proportion" of this sketch. The dimension of the earth is about 12 x 106 metre, the molecule is about 10-9 metre, and we should imagine a 00 of about 10-13 metre. (Note that the 0 is about 10-10 metre.)

  • In the space, of course, an infinite number of such patterns are created. The real picture is rather like a pellicle. For simplicity, we draw lines on the paper which we could call "gravitational band lines", as shown in Figure 02-04. The line under the molecule is unstable. (The 00-s are influenced inversely by the earth and the molecule.) There is a tendency to form a more stable line over the molecule. This is exactly what happens if the molecule starts to move towards the earth.

  • With an infinite number of gravitational band lines, the construction of our earth is similar to a golf ball, where the elastic bands are holding all the agglomerations of 0-s (matter) together. All the living gyroscopes of the universe are constructed similarly. The golf ball example is rudimentary. The 00 created elastic band can change its pattern instantaneously following the judgment and activity of the organ 0b.

  • The force created by the elastic band is transferred to the molecule by the gravitational field of the 00-s, in other words, by the free atoms -10.

  • I must repeat that the -10 is the most important unit of the universe. Those extremely little elastic spheres (about 10-36 metre) create an elastic medium which can transfer forces and pressures in all directions of the space.

  • Somebody who wants to understand the Living Atom Theory must be able to consider our universe as an infinite big elastic "ocean" of -10-s in which three kinds of living gyroscopes are embedded.

    1. The sun of 0.

    2. The sun of 00.

    3. The 0 (planetary unit).

The different activities of those four "microcosmic" units explain all the phenomena of Physics.

  • The value of the force depends on the molecule's mass value. Molecules are not the same. They are constructed of more or less different 0-s and of more or less elementary units -n. (We should assume a big number !). A more important molecule influences stronger the 00-s, resulting in a stronger "elastic band" force . It is the importance of the molecule which is expressed by its value of mass.

  • However, the mass value does not determine the equilibrium of the gas-molecules. The location of the molecule is determined by its volume. If the volume changes, then the molecule starts to move looking for a new position. The volume change depends on the temperature which also changes constantly. Thus, there is a constant movement of gas-molecules and a constant change of gravitational band patterns.

Temperature Organ

  • To better understand my last deduction, I give more details of the Temperature Organ na which is the principal security organ of the heavy atom n. We can understand its work only if, put aside our human arrogance, we admit that the na organ is much more superior, more sophisticated and more precise than the human brain is.

  • It is located in the "capital", the sun of the heavy atom. It performs different functions, and they are always done in the best interest of the atom. Let us mention some of them by taking, as an example, the organ 0a which governs the thermal behaviour of +1 (matter) and +1 (living unit).

    1. With the help of a perfect "radar" system (note that our vision is an imperfect "radar" system), the 0a is able to find out the level of activities in the surrounding 0 atoms, which means the levels of activities of the surrounding 0a-s. Then, it takes the decision to adjust its own level of activity in order to be in equilibrium with its environment. (This is similar to a clever political or military strategy.)

We can measure an average value of 0a activity levels in a huge quantity of 0-s with our thermometers, and we call it temperature. Thus, I thought it logical to call the 0a "temperature organ". Nevertheless, in the outside surface of a rigid body or a liquid, the level of activity of the 0a can essentially differ from the value indicated by the temperature. This "surface effect" explains a lot of interesting common phenomena (like heat reflection, insulation, etc.)

When the "radar" of a 0a has the opportunity to "see" the surface of the sun, it senses tremendous activities in the atoms 0 of the sun. Some atoms on the surface of the bodies +1 or +1 will essentially increase the level of their 0a activities, which of course results in a higher temperature. Thus, we can make a far-reaching conclusion. It is absolutely unnecessary to suppose the "travel" of energy(?) from the sun to the earth. The sun just influences the atoms of the earth, and the necessary power to heat up comes from the infinite little microcosm. It is the microcosm which creates all lives and everything. By violating it, we destroy our own life.

    1. Another interesting function of the 0a is the following. It has the "jurisdiction" to reorganise the defence structure of the atom 0. In certain conditions, it decides to associate with other 0 atoms, forming different kinds of molecular structures. (We call it chemical reaction!) It often happens that after reorganising, some 0a-s have a much higher level of activity, which creates heat. (We call it exothermic reaction.)

To characterise the activities of the na-s, it is useful to consider a kind of average velocity na and the mass value of the "temperature" organ |na|. Then, we can analyse the different possible changes of the momentum

|0a| x 0a

and we can make some interesting mathematical deductions. I did it in my original work "Les Atomes Vivants", and I came to the conclusion that the value 0a determines the temperature, and the mass value |0a| is in relation to the "specific heat" of the matter. It is interesting to note that we are able to observe one of the na-s, namely the +1a on the surface of our sun. Some spots on its surface are moving with tremendous velocities. (Do not forget that the symbol na is reserved only for the suns of the n-s.)

    1. Marvellous is another function of 0a-s when the atoms are associated to form molecules. They work in a perfect harmony, taking unanimous decisions in order to better assure the stability of the molecule. (Note that the water molecule has three 0a-s, and the acetone molecule has ten 0a-s.) The perfect "confederation" of 0a-s orders the matter +1 to transform from rigid to fluid or gaseous form and vice-versa. Of course, those transformations (like everything) are repeated on the different "steps" of the atomic worlds n. When the "matter" 0 inside the atom 0 is transformed in "gaseous" state, this results in an increased volume of the atom 0. It generally occurs with higher activity levels of the 0a-s. Then, in our world +1, we observe that the matter +1 is expanding when heated. (Note the interesting exception of water.) The expansion is especially pronounced in the case of gas-molecules. The reader of this study should realise that the heat expansion is basically governed by the organs -1a, which are the security ("temperature") organs of the secondary heavy atom -1.

    2. Finally, we should mention another interesting 0a activity. It reacts when the elastic gravitational medium inside the 0 starts to vibrate. (We know that this medium is composed of free atoms -10.) The vibration sensor of the 0a is a kind of receiver station which is specifically synchronised to frequency values of about 1013 hertz. Such kind of vibrations are predominant in electric discharges (we erroneously call them electric currents!), or in microwaves and some laser beams. Meanwhile, even some lower frequency vibrations can influence the 0a sensor. If we strike or hammer a rigid body or rub it, then we introduce some multifrequency vibrations inside the atom 0, and the 0a reacts. Similar phenomenon occurs if gas-molecules are obliged to travel fast through a restricted area.

Equilibrium of Gas-Molecules

  • Let us now return to our original topic, the Equilibrium of Gas-Molecules. With higher temperature, the gas-molecule essentially increases its volume. Dealing with molecules, we have the right to speak about temperature because it indicates an average value of 0a activities. Figure 02-05 shows two identical gas-molecules (with the same value of mass) but with different temperatures. We notice different forms of the gravitational band lines. Around the cooler little molecule, the band line has a smaller radius of curvature, resulting in a stronger tendency to straighten out. Consequently, the force 1 is bigger than 2. Furthermore, we should also consider a stronger buoyancy effect with bigger volume because there is a pressure value in each point of the atmospheric "ocean". Thus, there are two different reasons why a hot gas-molecule has a very strong tendency to rise higher in the atmosphere, and this is not only because of the principle of Archimedes.

  • It is fascinating to observe this marvellous Nature-created mechanism which allows the molecules to escape from a dangerous, overheated situation. They do it so in the case of an explosion, and we can also mention, for example, the accurate function of the chimneys and the heated air type balloons.

Remark: When a balloon is filled with hydrogen gas, it is told by physicists that the balloon ascends in the atmosphere because the hydrogen gas is lighter than air. This statement is inaccurate or not precise enough.

  • A volume of gas is a mixture of molecules and 00-s. If we want to analyse its equilibrium, then we must be able to explain the equilibrium of the acting forces, and this can be done only if we deal separately with the molecules. Then, we must conclude that the hydrogen gas-molecule ascends upwards because, in the standard atmospheric condition, it has a bigger volume than the surrounding air molecules do. (There are some rare exceptions of hydrogen molecules with little volumes, and we can find them in the lower atmosphere.)

  • The following three forces are acting upon the molecules.

    1. The upward centrifugal force caused by the rotation of the atmosphere.

    2. The upward force caused by the buoyancy effect.

    3. The downward force created by the gravitational band line.

  • In higher altitude, the molecule is cooled, the volume is diminished, and the three forces get in equilibrium. It often happens that after an excessive cooling, the molecule starts to travel downwards. Here, we can observe another marvellous natural mechanism which firmly ties the gas-molecules to the globe, but allows movements and creates interesting meteorological conditions.

  • We demonstrated that gravitational force varies with the temperature!!

  • If we specify the mass value as the measured weight divided by the gravitational acceleration (), then we introduce a paradox in the science of Physics.

  • The mass value specified by the Living Atom Theory is valid for all agglomerations n in the universe. Remember, the mass value is a relative number indicating the number of elementary units in an atomic agglomeration of n-s. We chose as unity the mass value of 1 centimetre3 water.

  • The paradox of mass value is less pronounced in the case of a rigid body, but it still exists. Even in a very compact rigid body, the molecules are surrounded by 00-s, and they are individually affected by the gravitational band lines. However, in a rigid body, the volume of molecules does not change considerably with the temperature, and we can measure the mass value a little more accurately.

The Pressure Problem

  • The gravitational force tries to push the gas-molecule towards the earth's centre. At the same time, it creates an elementary pressure in the elastic medium -10, which acts in all directions of the space. With the huge quantity of gas-molecules overhead in the atmosphere, the sum of those elementary pressures is the atmospheric or barometric pressure which we can measure with our barometers.

  • Thus, the atmospheric pressure is really caused by the deformed patterns of the gravitational bands around the gas-molecules. This means that if there were no gas-molecules, then we would not have atmospheric pressure, and the gravitational bands would have a more regular circular pattern around the rigid and fluid surface of the globe (very similar to the structure of a golf ball). Of course, such a pattern exerts a special kind of pressure on the earth's surface, tying the globe's matters together.

  • It is important to know that the pressure caused only by the gravitational bands is independent of the atmospheric pressure! It creates a very interesting effect on the liquid surfaces of the earth.

  • It is a nonsense to explain the gas pressure with the collisions of perfectly elastic gas-molecules, as was done by the well-known Kinetic Theory of Gases. This theory even associates the temperature with the kinetic energy of the fast moving gas-molecules. It was figured out that, in normal atmospheric condition, the velocity of a gas-molecule would be about 500 metre/second. Such a high velocity of a +1 unit would violate the "sound barrier", and it would cause an intolerable noise in the atmosphere.

  • The Kinetic Theory of Gases is a scientific blunder. The mathematical "acrobatics" in connection with this theory are unnecessarily charging the brains of physicists.

  • On the other hand, the other well-known theory of ideal gas, which relates the pressure and the volume of gas to the temperature, can be considered as a useful mathematical analogy for practical purposes and engineering. If we enclose a volume of gas (a bunch of gas-molecules embedded in the medium of 00-s) in a restricted area, then the pressure can be increased either by increasing the number of molecules (which can be done by compressing and decreasing the volume) or by increasing the temperature of the gas, which means increasing the volumes of the molecules.

  • The mechanism of the air in normal condition can satisfactorily be described with the help of the well-known

x = x

equation, but we should never forget that it is not Nature who obeys the human-invented equations. The comportment of the real gases depends essentially on the decisions taken by the organs 0a.

  • Here is a final remark about the medium 00 in the atmosphere. Some skeptic persons or scientists could argue by saying that the medium 00 would hinder the movements of molecules and other matters. This is not true because it is an intelligent living medium. The 00-s change voluntarily and instantaneously their patterns in order to allow free movements for all the +1-s and +1-s in the atmosphere. Furthermore, we should realise that the free atoms 00-s are fixed in the space of our solar system atom +1. They do not change their locations. When a +1 or a +1 moves, the new gravitational bands are always created by different 00 units.

The Orbits of the Planets

  • Now, I will analyse the gravitational band patterns which are acting in the space over the atmosphere.

  • There are gravitational bands tying all the planets of the solar system to the sun. For simplicity, Figure 02-06 represents only the gravitational system tying the earth to the sun. We notice several gravitational lines.

  • Line 1 represents the gravitation near the sun. Line 2 represents the gravitation near the earth. Line 3 represents the gravitation of the moon. Line 4 is the elastic band (pellicle) tying the moon to the earth. Line 5 represents the gravitational system tying the planet earth (+1) to the sun.

  • Nature does not like perfect symmetry. Everything is asymmetrical in order to present an infinite number of variations. The gravitational lines are asymmetrical, too. At Point a of Line 5, there is a curvature with a stronger tendency to straighten out, which creates a force , as shown. This force pushes our planet +1, and causes its revolution around the sun. In all points of the orbit, there is a perfect equilibrium of forces. The form and the location of the orbit never changes because the governing 00 units are fixed in the space. Our planet is moving like a little toy train on its rail under a Christmas tree.

  • However, there is some difference. The value of the force changes in different points of the orbit, and so does the velocity of the earth. Astronomers and physicists observed this fact. They also observed that the form of the orbit is very much similar to an ellipse. It is never an absolutely perfect ellipse! The ellipse is an idealised human-invented geometric form. Nature does not respect human inventions!!

  • I explained the movement and the orbit of a planetary unit +1. It is very easy to explain the orbit of all the planetary units n of the universe. We only have to understand that in the case of a n, the gravitational structure is created by the free atoms n-10.

The Tide Raising Forces

  • Finally, it is most interesting to analyse separately the gravitational structure of the earth and the moon, as shown in Figure 02-07. We notice that the band tying the moon to the earth must also be asymmetrical. This causes the revolution of the moon around the earth. Nature has all the possibilities to create asymmetrical gravitational bands.

  • The force equilibrating the centrifugal effect of the moon is indicated by c. Its reaction force is r. (We should imagine a stretched rubber band.) Obviously, such a gravitational structure creates additional pressure at Point 1 and Point 2 of the earth's surface.

  • It is easy to construct an experimental arrangement to demonstrate those pressures. We just have to tie together two balls with a stretched rubber band inserting a spring between them, as shown in Figure 02-08. Then, we can observe the four equilibrated forces, and we can understand the locations of Point 1 and Point 2.

  • Due to the rotation of the earth, the location of those points changes daily. When Point 1 or Point 2 is located on an important liquid surface, huge wave motions can be created, and we call them "tides". The pressure at Point 1 and Point 2 is even more pronounced when the sun, earth and moon are aligned because of an additional effect of the sun's gravitational band.

  • Knowing the movements of the earth and the moon, we can precisely predict the time when the tide occurs.

  • It is absolutely obvious that the tide is caused by a push and not by a pull.

  • The supposed gravitational pull of the moon could never precisely explain the tide at Point 2. The moon's pull would first of all affect the air molecules, and this would create a fatal vacuum destroying all the lives.

  • Such an explanation of the tide raising forces is probably the strongest argument proving the validity of the Living Atom Theory.

03 |THE MAGNIFICENT SECONDARY FREE ATOM A-10

Introduction

  • If we say that the universe is constructed by n-s and n0-s, then we must admit the unifying strength of the Living Atom Theory. Another unifying statement is the following: In the space of the universe, there is nothing else but three kinds of living rotating gyroscopes.

    1. The sun of n.

    2. The sun of n0.

    3. The planetary unit n.

  • Meanwhile, there is a lot of opportunity for those scientists who like to diversify the problems. The infinite variety of problems is due to the fact that Nature does not tolerate "equality" but only "similarity". In other words, there does not exist two perfectly equal Nature-created units even if we consider the quasi infinite little units of the microcosm. We are able to classify the natural units only by their similarities.

  • In this chapter, I try to explain and classify the different -10 free atoms and the different 0-s (0 is a kind of secondary "interatomic" matter in the 0-s and 00-s). Thus, I can explain a lot of interesting phenomena which, hitherto, are mysteries for the present confused science.

  • The -10 is very much similar to the 00, as shown in Figure 03-01. There is a tiny living gyroscope composed this time of heavy atoms -2. It is protected by its -20 gravitational field. For a first approach, we should imagine perfectly elastic little globes (or ellipsoids), and they are completely filling up the space of the universe. We assume that the dimension of a -10 is about 10-36 metre.

Remark: The dimensions which I gave for the atomic units are approximate. The exact dimensions are not important for my deductions, and nobody ever will be able to measure or to prove them. However, such dimensions have pedagogical values, allowing us to evaluate the proportions between the atomic units. I used the factor 1023 as a proportion between 0 and +1. (We know that 0 is about 10-10 metre, and +1 is about 1013 metre.)

  • We should assume this proportion of 1023 between all the different steps of the atomic "ladder". Furthermore, a n should be at least 1000 times bigger than a n0. (00 is about 10-13 metre.) Thus, we can give an approximate dimension for all units n and n0 in metre.

Remark: Even a dimension of 10-1000 metre is far from the absolute 0 (zero).

  • Now, I can start to explain two very interesting phenomena in which all different kinds of -10-s are involved.

The Buoyancy Problem

  • The infinite "sea" constructed by the elastic -10 globes is a perfect medium to transfer forces and pressures in all directions of the space. This medium works perfectly in the air, in gases and in liquids, too. The pressure is caused by gravitational forces (elastic bands) acting individually on each molecule.

  • We should realise that in liquids (and in solid bodies, too), the molecules are completely surrounded by 00-s. Thus, there are plenty of -10-s between the molecules to do the work of transferring forces and pressures. In liquids, the distance between molecules is less, and the volume of molecules is less, too.

  • Furthermore, in liquids, the molecules are tied together by some relatively weak elastic strings (bands). Those strings are also constructed by -10-s, and I should explain them later in this chapter. Another difference between liquids and gases is the fact that the effect of temperature is much more pronounced in gases.

  • The value of the pressure at a certain point depends on the number of molecules overhead this point. This means that in the atmosphere, the pressure decreases with the height. And in the liquids, the pressure increases with the depth. Thus, the principle of Archimedes works in liquids and in gases, but only because of the collaboration of the -10 elastic globes.

  • I already mentioned in the previous chapter that, dealing with the buoyancy in gases or in air, we have a more precise picture by considering each molecule separately instead of considering a volume of gas. A gas-molecule is a huge "giant" compared to a 00 or a -10. There is always a pressure difference between the bottom and the top of a molecule, which is the main condition for a buoyancy force. In liquids, it is accurate to consider the entire volume of an immersed body. In the air, the buoyancy of a rigid body is practically negligible.

The Electromagnetic Wave

  • Another very interesting phenomenon, where all the -10-s of the space are involved, is the Electromagnetic wave.

  • This name and the whole terminology in connection with this problem proves the confusion of modern science. Some textbooks are using the name "Electromagnetic radiation" which is even more confusing. With the -10-s, we can demonstrate that this problem has nothing to do with electricity, magnetism or radiation.

  • In this case, the chief "actor" is the tiny little living gyroscope inside the -10 which is governed by the powerful -1b organ. This organ orients the gyroscope's axis to the most favourable position.

  • Figure 03-02 shows three adjoining -10-s. If suddenly a kind of force punches one of the -10-s, then the impact will be transferred to the gyroscope by the free atoms -20. Then, the -1b will be obliged to make a slight adjustment in the axis orientation. This adjustment is perceived by the adjacent -1b-s, and they will do the same kind of adjustments. The result will be a kind of phenomenon similar to the well-known experiment of "domino effect" with a long series of falling dominos.

  • This Nature-created "domino effect" is much more perfect because of the following reasons.

    1. It works in all directions of the space.

    2. It is done by living entities and by living muscles. We should not worry about the power (energy?) to do the work or about a friction which could stop the movements. The effect is spread out in quasi infinite distances in the space.

    3. This natural "domino effect" traverses everything, even the rigid bodies. There are -10-s everywhere.

  • An impact of a single punch does not create an appreciable phenomenon. But if the impacts are repeated in a regular frequency, then we get a marvellous natural telecommunication signal. The "punching" place becomes an emitting station, and there has to be a receiver indeed, which is tuned to the emitted frequency.

  • Let us mention some typical examples.

    1. On a planetary unit 0, there are living units 0. If a group of them dances in a kind of "aerobic exercise", and the 0 rotates 5 x 1014 times/second, then the -10 gravitational field around the 0 will get repeated impacts, and a signal of 5 x 1014 hertz frequency will be emitted. An infinite number of receiving stations on other 0-s, maybe away in long distances, can receive this signal if they are tuned to this frequency. Human beings and other animals have their special receiving stations in their eyes. For us, such a signal is observed as a light of a certain colour. (The innumerable varieties of the light phenomenon should be analysed in a special chapter.)

    2. With some electric or electronic "gadgets", human technology is able to create vibrations of different frequencies ranging from about 105 hertz to 1012 hertz. The science calls them hertzian frequencies or radio frequencies. This is a multifrequency telecommunication system thanks to the signal transmitting -10 medium. However, as a general rule, we can say that the human-invented systems are just imperfect imitations of some Nature-created systems. There is more and more evidence that some natural units are using the hertzian frequencies for their telecommunications.

Some human inventions using hertzian signals are really spectacular. Unfortunately, greedy commercial interests are leading us into exaggerations. The Living Atom Theory teaches us that Nature punishes all kinds of exaggerations. Today, we have a serious hertzian pollution which contributes to the deterioration of our nervous system. Thus, human society becomes dangerously "crazy".

    1. The most interesting telecommunication signals are those used by the principal heavy atom organs 0a (temperature organ). I already explained that each 0a is able to detect the activity levels of other 0a-s. It has a perfect emitting and receiving station. Nature reserved for the 0a-s a "distinct" kind of frequency value which seems to be around 1013 hertz.

Remark: It is not important to know the exact value of this frequency. People familiar with the radio problems know that the emitters and receivers are always tuned to a slight range of frequencies. This frequency range is very important for the 0a. With slightly lower frequencies, we explain the infrared (IR) effects. With slightly higher frequencies, we explain the ultraviolet (UV) effects.

It is a blunder to classify the ultraviolet "rays" as the light phenomenon. If we observe some light, then this is just a by-product. The UV effect is strictly under the jurisdiction of the 0a-s.

I should note that a similar error was made by the science when the laser beam was classified as a light phenomenon. Here, too, the light is just a by-product. The laser beam is a special kind of radiation, as explained in Chapter 09.

  • After dealing with those three examples, we can formulate some general conclusions.

  • The electromagnetic wave or electromagnetic radiation should rather be called "Interatomic telecommunication signal". The chief "actor" of this phenomenon is the organ -1b which governs the orientation of the -10 gyroscopes.

  • The -10 medium can simultaneously transfer innumerable quantities of signals with different frequencies. This is obvious if we consider the number of -10-s in the space. On a surface of 1 millimetre2, there is room for about 1066 -10-s. Each of them has a slightly different characteristic. This means that through 1 millimetre2, 1066 different signals with different frequencies can simultaneously be transmitted. The success of the communication depends on the well-tuned receiver.

  • This interatomic signal propagates in the space with a certain speed which depends on the agility of the -1b-s. If the -10 gyroscope deviates 3 x 1044 times/second, and the dimension of the -10 is about 10-36 metre, then a signal emitted in the sun will reach us in about 8 minutes at the speed of light.

  • Sometimes, the light signal passes through a medium where 0 relay stations are involved. They are less agile and the propagation speed diminishes.

  • It can be misleading to speak about velocity of light. The signal propagation speed is not a vector. There is no such thing as a "photon" which travels with the velocity of light. I have to make the following statements.

    1. The paradox of the famous Michelson-Morley experiment (1878) does not exist. The speed of light signal does not change if the emitting station moves with a certain velocity.

    2. We must admit that the well-known Theory of Relativity introduced by the physicists Lorentz and Einstein is a scientific blunder because the starting point of their mathematical deductions is wrong. (Persons interested in details should read Chapter 06.)

The Different Secondary Free Atoms

  • Now, I try to classify the -10-s according to their different characteristics.

  • We should study Figure 03-03. It shows a kind of molecule made up of two 0 atoms and surrounded by free atoms 00. We distinguish three kinds of -10-s.

    1. Those near the globes (sun of 0, sun of 00 and the 0-s) are stable. They are represented by the sign .

    2. There are unstable -10-s in the interatomic zones between molecules and 00-s. We could call them "Outside type unstable -10-s". They are represented by the sign .

    3. There are unstable -10-s inside the 0 atoms between the gravitational frontiers of the different rotating globes. We could call them "Inside type unstable -10-s". They are represented by the sign .

  • Before we continue with the -10-s, let us repeat that the universe is constructed by a series of n heavy atoms and by a series of n0 free atoms. Only the heavy atoms (or their agglomerations, the n-s and the n-s) have the privilege to move in the space. The n0 free atoms are FIXED in the space!!

  • When a heavy atom moves, only the suns (nucleus) and the planetary units are moving. With a new position of an n, a new n0 pattern must be created.

  • The free atom pattern changes so fast that we can always consider a heavy atom or a molecule as a steady compact structure.

The Stable -10-s

  • It is very easy to explain them. We just have to imagine to be a living unit 0 on the surface of a 0 (instead of a +1 on a +1). Then, we would observe the same kind of atmospheric and gravitational effects which were explained in the previous chapter. The only difference is that the job will be done by -10-s instead of 00-s, and the molecule would be called 0 instead of +1. As for the stable -10-s inside the free atoms 00, we should consider that there is no "atmosphere", and there is no "temperature" problem. The -10-s are tying the matter 0 of the globe together, they are protecting the rotating globe, and they are transferring the forces created by the globes.

The Outside Type Unstable -10-s

  • The problem is more tricky because of the immense variety of phenomena created by those -10-s. They are the most widespread and the most numerous in our universe, filling up the voids between the 00-s.

  • The first duty of all unstable -10-s is to become stable. The work is done by the powerful -1b organ which orients the axis of the rotating globe to the most favourable position. Being far from some secondary "matter" 0, they are in need to reinforce themselves mutually by forming a huge variety of stabilising patterns. Such stability does not last a long time. If the -1b finds a better position, then the pattern changes rapidly. Remember that about 1044 changes can be made in 1 second!

  • To deal with those patterns, we should introduce a special symbol system called "short arrow system". The gyroscopes of the free atoms will be represented in a whole series like

-n, ..., -1, 0, +1, ..., +n

where n represents the gyroscope of the free atom n0.

  • The arrow is necessary because the direction of the gyroscope's axis has vectorial character. Figure 03-04 shows that the direction of the -1 arrow is determined by the directions of the surrounding -2 arrows. Similarly, the direction of the -2 arrow is determined by the -3 arrows and so on in the direction of the infinite little. It is up to us to choose a starting arrow direction, but once we did it, the arrow explains the interesting duality in electric problems ( and problem).

  • There are two basic positions to facilitate the stabilisation of the unstable free atoms. The position and the position . Figure 03-05 explains the stabilising effect of the position . In this case, elastic "bands" are created by -3 gyroscopes which are tying the -2 loops together, and they have a tendency to shorten the distance between the -1-s. Only the surrounding and protecting stable -20-s are preventing the globes from the danger to collide. This sketch also teaches us that to stabilise the unstable -10-s, all the series of -n0 are involved, where

->

  • A loop of n can be formed only with the help of n-1-s, n-2-s, etc. We must admit the fact that for Nature, infinity is a reality!

  • Figure 03-06 explains the stabilising effect of a position like . In this case, there is a strong tendency to form a common -2 loop which ties the two -1-s together.

  • Here, too, the collision of the globes is prevented by the stable -20-s. It is easy to understand that if the position of the gyroscope is like -1-1 or -1-1, then the -1b directional organs are working hard to find a more stable position.

  • Because of the stabilising position -1-1, the unstable -10-s have the tendency to form enclosed loop patterns. For such loops, I use the symbol -1, and we have the whole series

-n, ..., -1, 0, +1, ..., +n

Sometimes, those loops have such a dimension that we can observe their effect with compasses or other magnetic instruments. We can visualise such a loop pattern as in Figure 03-07, and for simplicity, we can draw only one arrow. This loop acts like a stretched rubber band with a tendency to shorten. It is a real structure which can create forces and reaction forces if something tries to lengthen it.

Remark: We already dealt with a similar loop, created this time by 00-s, when we explained the gravitational forces in our +1 space. Those loops are different because they are created by stable 00-s. However, they also act like stretched rubber bands because -20 loops are tying them together. (We can understand this effect if in Figure 03-05, we replace the arrow -1 with an arrow 0.)

  • The enclosed -1 explains the magnetic phenomena known by the science of Physics. They are called "Magnetic flux lines", and Figure 03-08 shows an example. The direction of the arrow determines the north and south "pôle" of this electromagnet. In Physics, the magnetic flux lines are introduced only for pedagogical purposes, and we are taught in the schools to consider them without "identity". This is an error because the flux lines create forces, and forces must always be supported by real structures.

The Discharging Tubes

  • Let us now introduce another kind of stabilising pattern used by the outside type unstable -10-s.

  • There is a strong tendency to create, behind a -1 loop, a long series of similar loops because of the stabilising positions.

  • Figure 03-09 shows such a pattern which is similar to a tube or a pipe. In my writings, I call it "discharging tube", and I am explaining the reason for this name. The diameter of a discharging tube can be as little as 10-32 metre which is the approximate dimension of a molecular type 0. Infinite is the number of discharging tubes with bigger diameters depending on the dimensions of the units which they encircle. Here are two typical examples.

    1. Figure 03-10 shows a part of an electric conductor connected to the and extremity of a battery. There is a phenomenon which is called "electric current" by the confused science of Physics. We can observe a well-known discharging tube outside the conductor (in the air or in vacuum) which is classified as "magnetic flux line". Meanwhile, inside the conductor, there is room for a huge variety of discharging tubes with microscopic dimensions. For example, the diameter of those which encircle the planetary units 0 is about 10-16 metre.

I had the opportunity to realise several experiments proving the existence of those inside type discharging tubes. Then, we can forget about the "phantom" of electric current. If we measure a "current" intensity, then we just evaluate the importance of the discharging tubes.

According to the Living Atom Theory, the phenomenon called "electric current" is a kind of discharging action where some dangerous tensions inside the 0-s are discharged with the help of discharging tubes. In our example, the discharge is continuous because we continuously furnish stressed 0-s in the extremities of the battery. In such an artificial discharge, each molecule and 0 atom inside the conductor is always charged (polarised) and discharged. This "ping-pong" between polarisation and discharge creates a continuous vibration inside the 0-s. The organ 0a reacts, and heat is created. Thus, the name "Discharging tube" is logical.

I just shortly mention that Nature is able to create stable discharging tube patterns without vibrations and heat effects. With their help, we can explain phenomena like cosmic rays, solenoid type patterns in the ferromagnetic materials, and the effect called "superconductivity".

    1. Another interesting discharging tube is that which is created inside a vacuum tube (or a TV picture tube), as shown in Figure 03-11. In Physics, the name "electronic circuit" is used, and we are told that "electrons?" are jumping from the cathode, and are flying to the anode. The Living Atom Theory replaces the flying electrons with clusters of discharging tubes. It is easy to prove that a magnetic field (perpendicular to the discharging tubes) creates forces among the -1-s, and deviates the discharging tube.

The idea that 0 planetary units are escaping from the 0-s and flying through the 00-s is a colossal blunder! This would be a very tragical event for the 0-s which are the building blocks of the cathode and the anode.

  • I could continue to enumerate the different discharging tubes for a long time. In this chapter, my goal is to briefly point out the extreme importance of the free atom -10. I find it more useful to explain the other kind of unstable -10. Anyway, we can explain all the observed electric, magnetic and electronic phenomena with the help of the unstable free atoms -10, and with some actions of the planetary units 0. If somebody would find one phenomenon which I could not explain, then I will be obliged to scrap the whole Living Atom Theory. This is a general rule of the eternal jigsaw puzzle which we are playing by trying to understand Nature's mysteries.

The Inside Type Unstable -10-s

  • We should take a second look at Figure 03-03. It shows a very simple molecule with only two 0-s and only three 0-s. Generally, molecules are much more complicated, and sometimes several hundred 0-s are involved.

  • The intergravitational zones between the 0-s are filled with unstable -10-s. They similarly must create some stabilising patterns, and such patterns are seriously considered by the directional organ 0b of the planetary globes 0.

  • There is a kind of similarity between a 0 and a free atom 00. However, the 0 has the privilege to move in the space of the 0, and it revolves around its sun on its orbit. This orbit and its plane are fixed in the space of the 0. The directional organ of the 0 has a strong tendency to orient the axis of the globe perpendicular to the orbit's plane. However, sometimes it finds a more favourable position by considering some strong stabilising patterns created around the 0. This means a slight deviation of the 0 axis.

Remark: I will never forget an interesting event in my life. My Physics professor at the university once told me that the deviation of the earth axis is observed by a cosmic "giant" as a kind of electric phenomenon. This strange idea was always a puzzle for me, and today I consider it as a strong inspiration.

  • Dealing with electricity, I was obliged to graph the 0-s with the following special sign, . The arrow indicates that, similarly to the free atoms, the direction of the axis has vectorial characteristic. The deviation of the -s causes a special kind of "stress" in the elastic gravitational medium of the 0. The average value of this stress is called "electric tension", and we can measure it with voltmeters.

  • This situation can be visualised if we consider just two elements on the outside surface of two molecules, as shown in Figure 03-12. In this sketch, there are two surface elements: 1 and 2. The shaded area indicates the inside of the molecules. (We can call it domain 0.) Between the two elements, there is air or vacuum. (We can call it domain 00.)

  • It is interesting to note that this sketch works even if we consider two surface elements of rigid bodies. In several electric or electrostatic problems, the air can be considered as domain 00. The presence of some gas-molecules can be neglected.

  • Inside the molecules, there are stabilising loop patterns: 1 and 2, which are created by the inside type unstable -10-s. I call them "polarisation loops". In my writings, I often use the symbol for the polarisation loops, and the symbol for the discharging tube loops. Here, too, we have the whole series

-n, ..., -1, 0, +1, ..., +n

and

-n, ..., -1, 0, +1, ..., +n

  • The deviated can have only two kinds of positions. At the left, the arrow is oriented toward the medium 00, and at the right, the arrow is oriented toward the medium 0. Then, we can say that the element 1 is polarised (charged?) positively, and the element 2 is polarised negatively. (It is up to us to choose which is positive or negative.)

  • In the sketch, we can see a stabilising loop -2, created this time by unstable -20 free atoms. This loop acts like a stretched rubber band. It ties the two -1-s together, and creates a pulling force between the two elements 1 and 2. It is easy to explain the pushing force if we invert the direction of one of the arrows .

  • Such an explanation of the "electrostatic" forces is far-reaching. Previously, I explained that the magnetic forces are created by unstable -10-s. Considering the difference between a -10 and -20, we can realise how much stronger a magnetic force can be compared to an electrostatic force.

  • Let us now suppose that the electrostatic pulling force works, and the distance between 1 and 2 diminishes. At a given time, the unstable -10-s in the domain 00 are following the -1 polarising patterns, and a strong discharging tube is created between the polarised surfaces. This happens instantaneously. Then, the axis of 0 () starts to vibrate. With the help of those vibrations, it reestablishes its perpendicular position to its orbit. This means the elimination of the electric tension, and we can say that the discharging tube really eliminates dangerous tensions in the 0-s. We already know that the vibration of the -s creates heat.

  • Let us consider once again the situation where we artificially sustain such a discharge with vibrating 0-s. In the electric technology, this situation is satisfactorily described with the well-known formula introduced by the German physicist George Ohm.

(Intensity) = (Electric tension) / (Resistance)

or

= /

For me, indicates the importance of -1 discharging loops, indicates the importance of -1 polarisation loops, and depends on the characteristics of the 0b which governs the gyroscopes . Huge is the variety of electric resistances because each 0 has different characteristics.

  • Before finishing with the inside type unstable -10-s, I would like to mention that some of them form those loops which are tying the different molecules together. This time, even some outside type unstable -10-s are involved. The so-called "intermolecular forces" created by those loops are relatively weak in fluids, but they can be very strong in some rigid bodies. If we break a piece of steel, then we are tearing up those intermolecular loops.

Remark: We should not be surprised at the fact that -10-s are involved in so many natural phenomena. The number of -10-s is awesome! In a volume of 1 millimetre3, there are about 10100 -10-s. The present Physics attributes a lot of different "rôles" for the hypothetical unit called "electron". Note that in a volume of 1 millimetre3 copper, there are only ~1022 electrons? This difference in numbers gives a huge advantage for the Living Atom Theory.

  • Maybe the most interesting work of the discharging tubes is in connection with the Radiations. According to the Living Atom Theory, we should classify as radiations all those phenomena where discharging tubes and subatomic 0 particles are involved.

The Different Subatomic Particles

  • In order to understand the bottom line of the problem, I should analyse in detail the different 0-s and -n-s.

  • It is a laughing matter when confused scientists are always discovering more subatomic particles, and they often get a Nobel prize for such a discovery.

  • In reality, they are just observing the effects caused by the discharging tubes. Only the -1 patterns are able to create measurable electric or electronic phenomena.

  • The variety of the 0-s is infinite. This is similar to the matter +1 in our solar system +1. The variety is even increased by the fact that the 0, like the +1, can exist in gaseous, liquid and solid form. Furthermore, a 0 molecule, like a +1 molecule, can be polarised positively or negatively. Note that in this case, -2 polarising loops are created by unstable -20-s, and -1 planetary units are involved.

  • As for the dimensions, a molecular type 0 is about 10-32 metre, and the sun of the atom 0 is about 10-14 metre. Between those dimensions, an infinite number of subatomic fragments can exist.

  • In the radiations created by Nature, only insignificant little 0-s are involved. Those radiations are harmless for the living +1-s. In Chapter 09, I explain the harmful radiations which are generally created by human technology.

The Power of the n Muscles

  • Now, I will explain the natural "mechanism" which creates the 0-s involved in the radiations. This leads us to a delicate and sometimes controversial problem.

  • All n living units of the universe create accelerations and forces with the help of their muscles. Some physicists and engineers can not liberate themselves from the idea of "energy balance", and they could ask the following question: What kind of energy can give the power for those muscles?

  • To answer this question, we should start to examine the behaviour of +1 animals including the human being. We are eating food, drinking water and breathing air in order to sustain the work done by our muscles. Trying to balance the calorie of the food with the work done is misleading. It is much more precise to say that we have a kind of perfect natural "laboratory" in which we oblige the 0a organs of the 0-s to reorganise their structures. Such reorganisation results in higher interatomic (0a) velocities (higher activity levels of the 0a-s). Our muscles are using the momentum values

|0a| x 0a

of those velocities to create accelerations and forces.

  • The chemical terminology would call this process "exothermic reaction". This name is not precise enough indeed. It takes much more than heat to function our muscles. Furthermore, the reorganisation of the 0a-s is followed by the reorganisations of

-1a-s, -2a-s, ..., -na-s

and the chemical terms are valid only in our little world +1.

  • We can state that the power of our muscles is "drawn" from an infinite big "source" of interatomic velocities created by the microcosm. All the -n muscles in the universe are working similarly.

  • The 0a is a complex organism which is composed of a huge quantity of 0-s. (This is like saying that a living human body is composed of a huge quantity of living cells.) During the process of reorganisation, the 0a is trying to keep the momentum value

|0a| x 0a

constant, and the velocity 0a can be increased only if the mass value |0a| decreases.

Remark: The momentum conservation principle is something more natural than the conservation of energy. Human technology is using the momentum conservation principle in the work of the jet engines.

  • Decreasing the value |0a| means the end of life for several 0-s. This is a kind of transformation

0 -> 0

Such transformations occur in all "steps" of the atomic worlds. In our world +1, a transformation

+1 -> +1

means an end of life, a death. We should begin to realise that with each movement of our muscles, we are starting a mass killing process in the atomic worlds of the microcosm. A huge quantity of

0-s, -1-s, ..., -n-s

are created in the heavy atoms

0, -1, ..., -n

Those atomic "corpses" are soiling the life of the atom. A n can not tolerate too many n-s. It ejects them into the interatomic spaces.

  • This is a kind of cleaning job, and is similar to the transpiration of a human body. Thus, we can not wonder if a lot of

0-s, -1-s, ..., -n-s

are "loitering" in the interatomic zones between the 0-s and 00-s. Those zones are in our living space, and some 0-s and -n-s can directly affect our life.

Remark: It is obvious that the number of the 0 and -n "corpses" is constantly increasing as the life goes on. This is a kind of slow polluting process in which the whole universe is involved.

  • The universe is a living entity, too, and there is a lifetime for each living unit. Only the time is relative. The lifetime of the universe can probably be measured by several billion years. But for us, even 1000 years is an eternity.

  • It is true that the crazy human technology is very much accelerating the pollution process, but this is just a local phenomenon in our tiny planet +1. If we continue to exaggerate with this artificial pollution, then Nature will find the method to eliminate the polluters, and the universe will continue its normal life without the homosapiens.

  • Now, I return to the problem of Radiations. We have 0-s in the interatomic zones between the 00-s. Those zones are also filled with outside type unstable -10-s. This is a perfect occasion for stabilisation. The unstable free atoms encircle the 0-s with -1 patterns, and stable discharging tubes are created.

  • Let us visualise this situation in Figure 03-13. We see the different stabilising loops involved. Inside the 0, there are polarisation loops -2.

  • Here, I should remark that even in the case of a matter +1, each molecule is more or less polarised. A perfect "electric" neutral situation does not exist in Nature. We just do not have voltmeters sensible enough to observe the polarisations.

  • We already know that the -1 loops are tied together with -2 loops in order to form stable discharging tubes. Then, we have, in the same arrangement, two different kinds of loops created by unstable free atoms -20. Such a pattern results in a force which obliges the 0 to move inside the discharging tube in a direction depending on its polarisation.

  • A general rule is that if we have different stabilising loops tied to different units but composed of the same n0 free atoms, then the interacting of the n0 gyroscopes create real forces between those different units. Note that the forces making the electric motors function are created by the interacting -10 gyroscopes.

  • The radiation is a natural cleaning system which disperses some dangerously concentrated 0-s equally in the space of the universe. Thus, the discharging tubes involved in the radiations could logically be called "dispersing tubes".

  • Human technology involuntarily imitated the natural dispersing system with a rudimentary device called "particle accelerator". The main difference is that this artificial device pollutes the environment instead of cleaning it!! The particle accelerator can exist only because of the scientific ignorance!!

  • Nature's dispersing system works even if some more important 0 atomic fragments are ejected from the 0-s. This time, we could compare the system to a kind of "revolver" gun with which we can play a "Russian Roulette" if we do not take the necessary precautions. The radiations easily traverse human tissues. Some 0 fragments are accepted by the atoms of our cells, and this can cause irreparable damages to our organs. Besides, some radiations have very strong discharging tubes which can have the same effect as a strong electric discharge (current?) traversing a human body.

  • I should mention that the instruments, which measure the strength of a radiation, indicate only the strength of the discharging tube.

  • When the 0 fragment is a part of a split and "killed" sun of the atom 0, the resulting radiation is a real suicide machine for the whole humankind. This is just what happens when the greedy human technology is using the so-called "nuclear energy". We have some temporary protections against the short-term effects, but the long-term effects are lethal anyway. (For more details, see Chapter 09.)

The Odour Problem

  • Probably, the most surprising deduction which can be made with the help of the Living Atom Theory is in connection with the Odour problem.

  • Let us make the following deduction.

    1. For a +1 observer, radiation is created by 0 fragments and -10 type discharging tubes.

    2. For a 0 observer, radiation is created by -1 fragments and -20 type discharging tubes.

    3. For a -1 observer, radiation is created by -2 fragments and -30 type discharging tubes.

  • Generally, for a n observer, radiation is created by n-1 fragments and n-20 type discharging tubes.

  • All those kinds of radiations are present in the interatomic zones between 0-s and 00-s. But for us and other +1 animals, only the first two kinds of radiations are important. We are affected by a primary 0 type radiation and a secondary -1 type radiation.

  • Nature equipped us with a special sense to evaluate the -1 type secondary radiation. With our organ of smell, we evaluate the quantity and the quality of the -1 "corpses". Thus, we are informed of the pollution level inside a matter or a molecule +1. After all, such a molecule can easily become a part of our body.

  • At first view, it seems bizarre that we can not evaluate directly the primary 0 type radiation. For me, this is the best proof of the fact that the natural 0 radiations are absolutely harmless for the +1-s. Nature's creations are very logical. We are equipped with senses in order to evaluate the dangers around us.

Remark: Some +1 animals are equipped to evaluate 0 type radiations. For them, this is a necessity. Fish at the bottom of the sea are oriented by a natural "radar" system which works with 0 type radiations.

  • Dealing with the odour problem, we should state that all matters, molecules +1 and living cells +1 are smelling because -1 corpses are continuously created by the living units 0. There are just more or less perfect noses to smell the odours.

  • I often meditated by asking the question: Why does the science of Physics not deal with the odour phenomenon? However, for the +1 animals, the sense of smell is as important as the sight, the hearing or the heat-sensing organ. Today, I have the right answer. The physicists did not have the guts to consider the odour as a form of energy!! Unfortunately, they did the same with most of the common phenomena, and they introduced confusions in natural sciences.

  • It is regrettable that in the modern times, our smelling sense gets dangerously degenerated. Numerous are the enemies of our noses. Most of them are intentionally created by human science and technology in order to cheat our smelling sense. For example, let us just mention the deodorisers, the different perfumes and the preserving ingredients used by the food industry.

  • Today, the urban dwellers are obliged to judge the quality of the food by the chemical formulae written on the labels. The chemical science is sometimes useful, but it is very rudimentary to judge the quality of food. There is a huge difference between a 2 molecule and another 2 molecule!!

  • The deterioration of our smelling sense is one of the principal reasons why the 5 billion human beings on our +1 planet should rather be called "5 billion sick persons". We all became standard customers for the medical and pharmaceutical business.

04 |THE MOVEMENTS

Introduction

  • As I explained in the previous chapter, only the units n-s and n-s have the privilege to move and to change their locations in their respective atomic space n. It is sufficient to deal with the movements of the matters +1 and of the living units +1 in the space of our solar system atom +1. In the other atomic units of the microcosm and macrocosm, the movements are identical, only the indexes at the bottom of the letters change.

  • The science of Physics deals with the movements of +1-s in the chapters of kinematics and dynamics. The movement problem gets a new interesting perspective when we introduce the free atoms and the living units +1.

  • Let us repeat that a +1 means an inanimate matter, and its smallest elementary unit is a molecule. A +1 can not start to move without the help of a force. We should consider the following five kinds of forces.

    1. Force created by the muscles of a +1

    2. Force created by the free atoms 00

    3. Force created by the free atoms -10

    4. Force created by the free atoms -20

    5. Force created by heat expansions which are governed by the temperature organ 0a

  • According to the Living Atom Theory, all those forces are really created by living muscles.

  • In this chapter, I would like to explain the actions of those forces with the help of some typical examples, and to deal with another special kind of force created by the movement itself.

Action of Forces Created by the Muscles +1

  • Figure 04-01 (A) shows a person hammering a nail. The force which moves the hammer is furnished by a +1 muscle. In the previous chapter, I already explained that the +1 muscle is "drawing" its power from a quasi infinite source of the microcosm.

  • Figure 04-01 (B) shows an element of the fixed nail and an element of the moving hammer. The real dimensions are enlarged about 106 times. Then, a molecule, which is about 10-6 millimetre, can be represented as a globe with 1 millimetre in diameter. The distance between molecules is about 2 to 3 times the molecule's diameter. Thus, even in a rigid body, the molecules are embedded in an elastic medium of 00 free atoms.

  • The picture of the gas-molecules in the air is similar, only we should remember that, in gases, the distance between molecules is ~100 times bigger. Furthermore, in rigid substances, a very complex -10 created loop system is tying the molecules together. The variety of those tying loops is awesome, and they determine the rigidity or the elasticity of the substance.

  • When the hammer is moving in a horizontal direction, each molecule is quasi "swimming" throughout the 00 medium without any resistance. This situation is explained in Figure 04-02. A certain 00 free atom at the left of the molecule will slightly be displaced, but once the molecule passed to the left, the 00 will return to its original position. The 00 will slightly be squeezed, and the resulting additional pressure is equally transferred all around the molecule by the elastic -10 medium. Furthermore, if we draw the gravitational band lines, then we can see that the horizontal h forces are always equilibrated. Thus, there is no resistance to a horizontal molecular movement in a pure 00 medium. However, the vertical v gravitational force acts continually. (Such a unique intelligent medium can only be explained with the living 00 free atoms!)

  • Let us repeat the general principle. When a substance +1 or a living unit +1 is moving, only the molecules are changing their location. The 00 medium between the molecules rest fixed in the space. It is like an imagined screen moving in a perfect vacuum.

  • In Figure 04-03, I enlarged even more an element of the rigid nail and of the moving hammer. Here, the real dimensions are enlarged about 2 x 107 times. Thus, we can analyse the impact of the hammer, like a strong collision between the molecules.

Remark: Dealing with a substance of iron, the chemical science does not give a precise description of the molecules. A substance of iron is certainly composed of a huge variety of molecules. After the scientific definition, the molecule is the smallest unit of a compound usually composed of two or more atoms. We should slightly modify this definition by saying: A molecule is the smallest unit of a substance which is completely surrounded by 00 free atoms. It can be composed of one or several 0 heavy atoms. It is important to realise that inside the molecule, there are only three kinds of units.

    1. The sun (or the suns) of the 0 atoms.

    2. The planetary units 0.

    3. The gravitational medium composed of free atoms -10.

  • When the hammer strikes, there is a relatively strong collision between a lot of molecules. The impact of the collision is taken by a natural "bumper" system composed of 0-s and -10-s. A lot of those free atoms are seriously squeezed.

The Sound

  • Squeezing the 00-s creates an interesting vibrating phenomenon in our living space where the 00 free atoms are in big majority. In this 00 type vibration, even some molecules are involved. This means that +1 masses are moving in our space with real velocities. The vibrating movement propagates like a wave in fluids. With the frequency value of the vibration and the speed of propagation, we can calculate the wavelength of the motion.

  • Our hearing system is tuned to evaluate the frequency value and the strength of those vibrations. If the sound emitting station moves in the space, then we can sometimes observe the change of frequency (Doppler effect).

  • It is important to realise the basic difference between sound waves and light or radio emissions. The phenomena erroneously called "electromagnetic waves" do not have wavelengths, but only frequencies. Such terms as "microwave" or "micro-onde" are just proving the confusion of modern science.

  • The squeezing of the -10 free atoms has four kinds of different effects inside the 0 atoms of the molecules.

    1. The vibration of the -10 medium is perceived by the receiver station of the 0a organ, which means a rise in temperature. It is very naive to say that the kinetic energy of the hammer is transformed into heat energy. We can demonstrate with numerous experiments that, during such a hammering process, the balance of energies does not work at all.

In the phenomenon which we call "friction", the squeezing of -10-s is similar, and heat is created. By rubbing the surface of a body, some molecules are always colliding, and they create the so-called "resistance of friction". Sometimes, even 00 units are squeezed, and sound is created indeed. The friction problem is perfectly explained with the help of 00-s and -10-s.

    1. The strong collision of molecules can affect those -10-s which form the -1 polarisation loops inside the 0-s. In other words, the electric tension of a substance can be changed. Different substances react differently. We know the interesting effect by rubbing substances like glass, ebonite, amber, silk, etc. Another typical example is the collision of water vapour molecules in the clouds, resulting in thunderstorms.

    2. Squeezing the -10 units can affect even those -1 loops, which are tying the molecules of a rigid body together. In different substances, those tying loops have different characteristics. When we hammer a malleable substance (like lead), the molecular structure of the body can essentially be changed. Such a hammering action is challenging the well-known Law of Energy Conservation. The kinetic energy of the hammer is quasi completely lost!! Once more, we can prove that the energy entity does not exist in Nature. We just can measure the work done by the living atoms with the help of the human-invented measuring unit called energy.

    3. The squeezing of the -10 free atom has another interesting effect, but only in substances like iron or steel which are called "ferromagnetic materials". It is a well-known fact that a strong mechanical shock changes the magnetic pattern of a ferromagnetic substance because those patterns are composed of -10-s, too. The Living Atom Theory explains the ferromagnetism as a perfect natural form of a human-invented "gadget" called solenoid. The discharging tubes inside a ferromagnetic substance are located similarly to the coils of a solenoid. Such a pattern can be more or less stable depending on the molecular structure of the steel.

Remark: In the history of science, the French physicist Ampère introduced a ferromagnetic theory with a multitude of tiny closed electric current loops inside the body. Obviously, such a system can not work with an industrial type electric "current", where interatomic vibrations and heat productions are involved. With Nature-created stable discharging tube patterns, the ferromagnetic mystery is solved!

  • In the modern Physics, our brains are charged with such things as "whirling electrons", "magnetic domains", "stored energies", etc. This is one of the most ridiculous scientific confusions.

Action of the 00 Created Forces

  • Each time the gravitation works, 00 created forces are involved. Thus, rivers are flowing, rain is falling, hydroelectric stations are working, tides are rising, planets are revolving in their orbits, etc. The 00 created forces act individually on each +1 molecule. I explained most of those problems in the previous chapters.

  • An especially interesting 00 action is explained in Figure 04-04. It shows the gravitational band lines around two molecules with a very short distance between them. Let us remember that those lines are composed of the living gyroscopes of the 00-s, and they can be represented by a short arrow like 0.

  • They are acting like stretched elastic bands. With such a short distance between molecules, there is a strong tendency to form a special kind of band line which covers both molecules. Then, two little forces are pushing the molecules together. Such forces are acting even if we replace the molecules with heavy metal spheres.

  • In 1798, the English physicist Sir Henry Cavendish measured those forces with his famous balance. It was an interesting experiment but, unfortunately, it induced a gross error in natural sciences. It was obstinately assumed that the gravitation is a pulling force between masses. The tide phenomenon clearly demonstrates that the gravitation is always a push. If we would try to measure the horizontal gravitational pull between two bodies with 100 metre distance between them, then we would admit the nonsense of the gravitational pull. The Cavendish balance works only with very short distances between the masses.

  • The result of the Cavendish experiment was used to calculate the mass and the density of the earth and other planets. Such figures can be used as interesting topics of conversation in some scientific circles. For me, this is just an audacious generalisation of the confused science. Never, nobody could measure the real average density and the mass value of the earth!

Action of the -10 Created Forces

  • All magnetic forces are created by the stabilising patterns of the unstable outside type -10-s. Action of those forces is used to rotate the electric motors, and to move all kinds of magnetic devices. As a typical example, I will explain the Nature-created electric motor which rotates our +1 planet, as shown in Figure 04-05.

  • The earth is a huge permanent magnet. Inside it, I represented the special "solenoid" type discharging tube pattern. This natural solenoid creates the -1 loops which we can observe with the help of compasses. The sketch shows another natural discharging tube pattern which crosses the -1 loops of the earth. They are patterns fixed in the space. They represent the "stator" part of the planet's electric motor.

Remark: The magnetic patterns which rotate the earth are located in the very high altitude called ionosphere (between 50 and 100 kilometre over the sea level). In the lower atmosphere, the patterns are different. They are pushing the air molecules, and obliging them to follow the globe's rotation. We can observe some of those discharging tubes. They are erroneously called "cosmic rays".

  • At this point, it is useful to draw some side-views of the earth's rotating device, shown in Figure 04-06. In Figure 04-06 (A), we can see the interacting -1-s. The magnetic "field" of the earth is distorted. The -1-s have the tendency to concentrate at the right of the picture because of the more stable position. In Figure 04-06 (B), I replaced the bunch of -1-s with a single line which I call "Magnetic band line". (We should remember that I used the term "Gravitational band line" when dealing with gravitational forces.)

  • The magnetic band line is like a stretched elastic band. It creates force and reaction force r at point in Figure 04-06 (B). This line is tied to the rotating globe. When it straightens out, it furnishes the necessary torque to rotate the globe. This means that the magnetic band line changes its location, and rotates with the globe. However, the elementary units, which create the band lines, do not move at all. There are plenty of -10-s in each microscopic place of the space to form the continuously changing magnetic band lines.

  • We can make the following general statement. The space, composed of 00-s and -10-s is an amazing intelligent medium. It can furnish the necessary forces to move the +1-s and +1-s without changing the locations of the 00-s and -10-s.

Remark: In the electric technology, they often use the term "rotating magnetic field". The concept of "field" is obscure in Physics. Dealing with really existing -10 units, it is much more precise to say that the magnetic band lines are rotating.

  • The picture of Figure 04-06 can also be used to explain the basic principle of the electric motors. This time, the discharging tubes are created by an electric conductor and by an artificial industrial discharge (current?). Generally, the conductor is moving, which means that the force is doing the job instead of the reaction force r. The -1 loops are created by a strong magnet which is the "stator" part of the electric motor. I would like to mention that such an arrangement and the idea of distorted magnetic field was introduced the first time by the English physicist Michael Faraday in 1821.

Action of the -20 Created Forces

  • The -20-s are responsible for all those forces which are called "electrostatic forces" in Physics. Furthermore, the interacting -2 loops are furnishing the forces which oblige the subatomic 0 particles to move and create the phenomenon called "radiation". The -20 is very active inside the heavy atom -1, too. But here, I would rather focus on those phenomena which can directly be observed by a +1 living unit.

  • When a -2 creates a force, there is always a reaction force, too (generally on the opposite side of the loop). This principle is valid for the whole series of loops

-n, ..., -1, 0, +1, ..., +n

  • One of the most important natural law is that a force can not exist without a reaction force!

  • The confused science of Physics deals with some unreal forces. They are called "fundamental forces". With the help of such fundamental forces, a scientific "phantom" called "electric charge" was introduced. The basic equation is

= x (1 x 2 / 2)

where 1 and 2 are electric charges, is the distance between them, and is a constant. In Physics, the three fundamental forces are introduced by similar equations in spite of the fact that there are huge differences among them.

  • The electric charge must be concentrated on one point. Otherwise, the distance has no sense at all. This means that, for real bodies, this equation does not work.

  • A clear and simple explanation of the electrostatic forces can be done only with the help of the deviated 0 planetary unit axis. The direction of the 0 axis is represented by the sign . In positions like or , real forces, created by -1 and -2 loops, are tying those -s together. Two bodies with different polarisations are represented in Figure 04-07. Then, there is a pulling force realised by -2 loops between the surface elements 1 and 2.

  • When the distance between the two bodies diminishes, the -s have the tendency to take a position, as shown in Figure 04-08. Such a position increases the possibility of discharge. This means that a polarised body can influence the polarisation of another body.

Remark: Nature has a lot of "tricks" to facilitate the discharge of dangerous electric tensions. This simple principle explains several electrostatic phenomena. A high and constant electric tension can not be kept forever. Nature's mechanism discharges it sooner or later.

  • We can see that the electrostatic pull is an action preferred by Nature. Not so with the electrostatic push. Figure 04-09 shows two bodies with similar polarisations. This position of the -s is the most favourable for an eventual discharge. It can be a slight pushing force between the two surface elements 3 and 4, but this force is much less than the electrostatic pull. The equation with 1 and 2 electric charges assumes equal pulling and pushing forces. This is one more reason why such an equation has no sense at all.

  • The electrostatic forces are generally acting on the outside surfaces of bodies (or molecules). This is especially true for good conducting substances (like metals).

  • For insulating materials (like rubber, glass, etc.), the situation is different. Huge is the variety of those polarisations inside the insulators, but they can always be explained with the help of the deviated -s, the -1 polarisation loops and the -2 loops. Those three elements explain all the phenomena in connection with electrostatics. We should definitely eliminate the phantom of electric charge.

Action of the 0a Created Forces

  • Those forces are really created by heat expansions, and particularly by the heat expansion of gas-molecules. Of course, the action of the temperature organ 0a is necessary, and I already explained that the secondary temperature organ -1a is playing an important rôle in heat expansions.

  • Pressures created by heat expansions are responsible for some air movements in the atmosphere. Sometimes, they can create movements in fluids, too.

  • Heat expansions are used in a lot of human-constructed devices. Generally, they are called "thermic machines". Dealing with such devices, the concept of energy is useful. With the help of the energy "comptability" (balancing the energy values), we can predict the performance of our machines. In my opinion, the concept of energy should strictly be reserved for engineers. We should never use it to explain natural phenomena.

Forces Created by Movements

  • This is a tricky and sometimes controversial problem in Physics. We should start to explain the concept of velocity, generally indicated by the letter . It is deduced with the help of an elementary displacement and an element of time using the equation

= / when -> 0

where is a vector with a fixed direction and an absolute value ||.

Remark: Some scientific textbooks are often using the word "speed", but sometimes they do not explain precisely the difference between velocity and speed. In my opinion, we should use the word speed if we consider only the absolute value of the velocity, or if the movement propagates without a vector. For example, the light has no velocity but only speed.

  • The velocity characterises very well the phenomenon of movement. It represents a sign of life. The death of the universe will occur with the end of movements and velocities.

  • Some velocities can directly be observed with our vision, but we should be careful. There are several relative movements and, consequently, some apparent velocities. We should use our vision together with our judgment. According to the Living Atom Theory, only the velocity can be apparent. There are no such things as apparent forces or apparent dimension values, and the idea of apparent mass value is a scientific blunder!

  • Another particularity of the velocity is the fact that Nature does not tolerate a steady constant velocity. Either the absolute value of the vector or its direction changes continuously.

  • In Physics, the change of the vector is explained with another concept called acceleration. (Or deceleration which means negative acceleration, a slowing down. For simplicity, we use only the word "acceleration".)

  • Generally, the letter indicates the acceleration. The basic equation is

= / when -> 0

Like the velocity , the acceleration is a vector, too. It has different forms. Beside the linear acceleration, we have the so-called tangential and radial accelerations when the +1 or +1 is moving on a curved path. (I explained those different accelerations in a special study "The Living Planet Earth".)

  • Now, I would like to make some important statements.

    1. In Nature, there is no movement without acceleration because the velocity is never constant.

    2. I already explained that a force is needed for a movement. Thus, the acceleration is always created by a force.

  • The relation between a force and the acceleration was introduced by Newton's second law of motion with the well-known equation

= |+1| x

The value of mass |+1| was introduced as the ratio of force to acceleration

|+1| = / .

  • It is important to understand the difference between the force and the product

|+1| x

which is a special kind of force. Only the absolute values of those two forces are equal.

  • This is a basic natural law. The accelerating force is always opposed by a special kind of counterforce often called "inertia force". This is a force created by the movement. Consequently, a moving body is always in a perfect dynamic equilibrium.

  • We should analyse this

|+1| x

force with the perspective of the Living Atom Theory.

  • When a train is accelerating, each passenger is individually affected by the inertia force. Similarly, in an accelerating human body, each elementary molecule is individually affected.

  • Let us look deeper into the microcosm, and study the acceleration of a heavy atom 0, shown in Figure 04-10. The atom is accelerating in the direction indicated by . Each unit inside the atom will be affected by a force opposing the acceleration. A planetary unit 0 will be affected by a force

|0| x

where |0| is the mass value of the 0. The elastic -10 gravitational medium inside the 0 is stressed in order to resist the inertia forces. Without the -10 medium, the acceleration would be a tragical event for the atom 0.

  • It is obvious that each elementary unit of the microcosm has a mass value. Let us consider a heavy atom -100. It is quasi infinite little, but it has a mass value |-100|. According to the Living Atom Theory, the -100 is an elementary unit of a body +1 which we could indicate by a mathematical sign

+1 = -100

Similarly, the mass value could be indicated by

|+1| = |-100|

  • We can imagine an awesomely big number , and then

|+1| = x |-100|

but this time, the |-100| means an average mass value of the -100-s.

  • The accelerating force is

= |+1| x = x |-100| x

where

|-100| x

is an elementary inertia force.

  • Generally, the mass value of a body +1 indicates the number of elementary -n units in a body when

->

The mass value also indicates the importance of an atomic agglomeration.

  • We can say that in a matter of 2 kilogramme mass, there are two times as many -n-s as in a matter of 1 kilogramme mass.

  • If we consider the mass as a ratio of the weight to the gravitational acceleration, then the measured value is not accurate. The error is especially pronounced in the case of gas-molecules.

  • In my opinion, if somebody studies the science of Physics, then the first step is to understand what the value of mass really is!

The Rotation

  • In Nature, movement represents life. Among all the movements, there is one which is preferred. It is called circular motion or rotation. A typical example is the gyroscope. This is Nature's "distinct" movement.

  • In the rotation, the forces are definitely created by movements or, we can say, by accelerations. It is bizarre. When a human-constructed gyroscope rotates, the force, which causes the acceleration, is created by the acceleration itself!! (It is called centripetal force.) However, in the case of a living gyroscope (like the earth), the centripetal force is furnished by the gravitation. We should strictly distinguish between inanimate gyroscopes and self-governed living gyroscopes. Anyway, acceleration always creates forces. Inversely, forces in equilibrium do not create accelerations.

  • A long-lasting linear acceleration is forbidden by Nature. It would jeopardise the security of the moving unit. Furthermore, a slowing down will also be stopped sooner or later.

  • With the rotation, a quasi constant acceleration can be achieved. When the driving torque equilibrates the braking resisting force, there is a practically-constant angular velocity. All the rotating living planets and satellites of the solar system are working with this principle. Even the human-constructed rotating engines have similar characteristics.

  • The Rotation is a constant movement with a marvellous perfect dynamic equilibrium.

  • All the minuscule places of the universe are filled with self-governed rotating gyroscopes. No wonder that the Creator constructed the universe with the help of such units.

  • In my writings, I visualised the living gyroscopes with the short arrow . We can complete this sign with an index (like n). indicates the different steps in the atomic worlds of the macrocosm and microcosm. (The can be a whole number between - and +.)

  • Then, we can say that with a simple sign n, the whole universe is represented.

05 |THE CORIOLIS FORCES

Introduction

  • In Physics, this name is used for forces created by a body which is moving with a velocity on a rotating system animated by an angular velocity . Since we live on a rotating planet, the Coriolis effect is very common. Nevertheless, the forces are generally weak, and they do not affect our human activities. This is probably the reason why only advanced studies in Physics deal with this phenomenon.

  • I was always fascinated by Physics, and I made several experiments in connection with the Coriolis effects. As a result, I found that the present science of Physics explains the Coriolis forces erroneously, and is full of confusions.

  • The confusion starts with introducing the different forces acting in the universe. It is obvious that a force can act only if it is supported by a solid structure. Then, this structure is charged by a force of the same absolute value, but acting in the opposite direction. We call it reaction force. Meanwhile, we experience some forces where the physicists never tried to find and explain the supporting structures and the reaction forces (like the gravitational, the electrostatic and the magnetic forces). The science is satisfied to introduce mathematical formulae in order to calculate them, and it is said that those so-called "fundamental forces" do not obey Newton's law. We can call them non-newtonian forces.

Remark: It was the English philosopher Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) who, for the first time, explained the natural law of action-reaction.

  • Furthermore, another force was also introduced as being non-newtonian. It is called inertia force. In order to understand the Coriolis effect, we are obliged to analyse in detail those inertia forces.

Inertia Forces

  • They are caused by the accelerating movements of the bodies. This is one of the most marvellous natural law. An acceleration is always caused by a force, but Nature always creates a kind of counterforce in order to assure a perfect dynamic equilibrium for all moving bodies, which is called inertia force in Physics.

Remark: In the universe, everything is always moving and accelerating. A perfect constant linear velocity does not exist. Consequently, each body is always affected by some inertia forces. It is said that an inertia-free point does not exist in the universe. Fortunately, we can deal with most of the problems by neglecting the inertia effects caused by the rotation and revolution of the earth or other celestial units.

  • The inertia force has an interesting particularity. It affects individually each elementary unit inside the accelerating body. This means that an accelerating force should act individually on each elementary unit. In a rigid body, the elementary units (molecules, atoms) are firmly tied together. The elementary units are accelerating together with the whole body.

  • When we are sitting in an accelerating car, the acceleration of our body is assured only if we are tied to the rigid structure of the car. In the case of a frontal collision, and without using a seat belt, the acceleration of our body starts only when we hit the front window. (Let us note that a slowing down should be considered as a negative acceleration.)

  • It is a difficult task to specify exactly the elementary units of a body which are individually affected by the inertia forces. We know that a body (living or inanimate) is an agglomeration built up of a huge quantity of atoms. Inside the atomic structure, there is a nucleus (which I call sun of the atom) and several electrons (which I call planetary units).

  • If we consider an atom accelerating in the direction , as shown in Figure 05-01, then each inside unit will be affected by an inertia force in the direction as indicated. The acceleration of an atom must be similar to the acceleration of a vehicle. Each unit inside the atomic structure has its special kind of "seat belt". The law of inertia must be the same for all units of the microcosm.

  • Today, we start to understand that even the members of an atom are complicated structures build up of elementary subatomic particles. So, it is difficult to specify how far we should go in the direction of the infinite little in order to explain the elementary units of an accelerating body. However, to understand the problem, we should imagine a quasi infinite little elementary unit, and we indicate its mass value with the sign e. Let us indicate the mass value of the whole body by the sign , and the acceleration by . Then, the inertia force acting on the whole body will be

x

It is a resultant vector composed of a huge quantity of elementary inertia forces

e x

This resultant force acts in the opposite direction to the acceleration, and passes through the centre of inertia of the accelerating body.

Remark: The centre of inertia is practically the same as the centre of gravity. However, there is a basic difference between inertia and gravity.

  • The gravity affects individually each molecule of a body. We should imagine that each molecule is tied to the earth by an invisible elastic string. The resultant of these elementary forces passes through the centre of gravity.

  • On the other hand, the elementary units affected by the inertia forces are much smaller than a molecule. The inside of each atom is individually stressed in the case of an acceleration. A human being has a different feeling if he/she strongly accelerates, or he/she is in the outer space without gravitation. A very strong acceleration can even instantaneously kill a living unit. Physicists who try to unify the gravity and the inertia are making a colossal blunder.

  • We can consider an average mass value of those elementary units (affected by inertia), and indicate them with the sign |e|. Then, we can introduce a quasi infinite big number , and the inertia force will be

x |e| x = x

Thus, the value of mass of a body will be

= x |e|

This means that the value of mass indicates the number of elementary units in the body. In a mass of 2 kilogramme, there are two times as many elementary units as in a mass of 1 kilogramme.

  • I already mentioned that some physicists are considering the inertia forces without any reaction, like the other non-newtonian forces. The idea is introduced by observing the inertial phenomenon inside an accelerating system (in the framework of an accelerating coordinate system).

  • In a fast running car, if we suddenly apply the brake, then we are thinking that a mysterious force is pushing us forward. Some books are using the expression "apparent force". This name can be misleading. Precisely, we should use the name "apparent" only for such things or for such phenomena which we can directly observe with our vision. A force is not such a thing. Its existence does not depend upon some moving coordinate systems, and we must always find the supporting structure and the reaction force. Meanwhile, sometimes we observe apparent trajectories, and some relative velocities can be apparent, too.

Remark: In modern science, it became a kind of fashion to introduce relative, apparent entities. I would rather like to call this "scientific mania". By considering the speed of light as a universal constant, some scientists introduced the apparent time value, the apparent mass value, and even the apparent energy value. Sometimes, without any reason, those apparent things are considered to be real. This transformation from apparent to real causes a real scientific confusion.

Introducing the Coriolis Forces

  • In Physics, the Coriolis force is introduced with the help of a circular rotating platform, as shown in Figure 05-02 (A).

  • It rotates with a constant angular velocity . It is assumed that the surface of the platform is perfectly slippery (friction-less). Furthermore, the centre point of the rotation is considered to be inertia-free (neglecting the effects of the rotating earth). A little globe of mass is attached to the centre point with a string of length , and it is following the rotation of the platform. Suddenly, we cut the string and, without a centripetal force, the globe is obliged to change its trajectory. An observer, standing near the platform, will see that the globe moves in a straight line with a velocity

= x

as shown in Figure 05-02 (B). An observer, sitting in the centre point and rotating with the platform, will see that the globe draws a deviated trajectory, as shown in Figure 05-02 (C). He/She attributes this deviation to an apparent force which was introduced as Coriolis force.

  • The idea of this apparent Coriolis force is misleading. On a perfectly slippery surface, no horizontal force and reaction force can be created. This is just an apparent trajectory observed by a rotating person.

  • Most physicists are obsessed with handling the inertia and the Coriolis problem in reference to an accelerating or rotating coordinate system. Some spectacular mathematical equations have been introduced and, as a result, the following statement was made.

  • In a coordinate system, rotating with an angular velocity (like our rotating platform), we have to consider two kinds of apparent forces acting on each body (with mass value ).

    1. The so-called centrifugal force. Its value is given by the formula

ce = x x 2

where is the distance between the body and the centre of rotation. Its direction is radial, pointing away from the rotation's axis.

    1. If the body moves with a velocity on the rotating platform, then we also should consider a Coriolis force, and its value can be calculated by the formula

co = 2 x x ( x )

where the sign ( x ) means the vectorial product of the vectors and . The resulting force is perpendicular to both and . If we define the direction of the , then we can find the direction of the Coriolis force with the well-known right-hand or left-hand three fingers rule.

  • According to this formula, the Coriolis force does not depend on the direction of the movement. The only condition is that the velocity vector should be on the surface of the rotating platform, which means perpendicular to the rotation's axis. And this is not true. We can prove it with a simple experiment.

  • Let us consider a large rotating platform on which a person can easily walk or run, as shown in Figure 05-03. Suppose that he/she runs with a velocity

= x

perpendicular to the radius and in the opposite direction of the rotation as shown. According to the formulae, this person should be affected by a centrifugal force

ce = x x 2

and a Coriolis force

co = 2 x x x = 2 x x x 2

because

= x

Those two forces are acting in the opposite direction. As a result, we should feel a force

co - ce = x x 2

which should push our body in the direction of the rotation's axis. Everybody can find out that this is not true. Anyway, if we examine this situation in a standing (assumed to be inertia-free) system, then it is obvious that the person does not move at all, and no movement means no acceleration and no inertia forces.

  • If we start to run in the radial direction, then the situation is different. We feel a force which tries to overturn our body in the right direction (if the direction of the rotation is as indicated in the sketch). We must work harder with our right foot in order to keep our equilibrium.

  • We can continue our experiment by running in another direction on the rotating platform. We will still feel this force, but it will always become weaker as we approach the direction perpendicular to the radius. This means that, by evaluating the Coriolis force, only the radial component of the velocity should be considered. In other words, we should consider the speed at which we are approaching the rotating axis or moving from it.

Remark: We should not deviate too much from the radial direction because then the centrifugal force dominates. Anyway, moving perpendicularly to the radius, the Coriolis effect completely disappears.

  • This experiment shows that there is a real Coriolis force. Due to the rotation, the trajectory of the moving body is always curved, and this causes a kind of inertia force.

  • In order to better understand the problem, it is useful to realise another experiment.

  • On a rotating platform, we fix two rails in the radial direction, as shown in Figure 05-04. On each of the rails, there is a kind of vehicle (like a little toy train). Vehicle moves towards the rotating axis, and Vehicle moves away from it. We can draw the trajectories of the vehicles in the standing (inertia-free) system, and we find the curves and . A curved trajectory means an acceleration, and the vector of this acceleration is pointed towards the centre of curvature.

  • It is interesting to draw a section - through the vehicle as shown in Figure 05-05.

  • We can observe four different forces.

    1. The force is causing the acceleration. It obliges the vehicle to follow a curved trajectory. This force is supported by the rail, and the rail must be fixed to the rotating platform. Otherwise, there is no Coriolis acceleration.

    2. The force r is the reaction force of . It proves the validity of Newton's third axiom, and it charges the same structure as the force .

    3. The force co is a kind of inertia force. It is the result of a quasi infinite number of elementary inertia forces. The resultant force vector passes through the centre of inertia of the vehicle.

    4. Finally, we should mention the force . It increases the weight load of the vehicle, and counterbalances the overturning moment

co x

Consequently, there is an additional load on the right wheels of the vehicle (by observing it in the direction of the movement).

  • Remark: It was observed that, in the northern hemisphere, the right-side wheels and rails are more loaded in places where a train moves in the north-south (or south-north) direction. In the southern hemisphere, the left-side wheels and rails are more loaded. However, the forces caused by the Coriolis effect are weak because of the low angular velocity value of the earth's rotation.

  • When a vehicle moves in a circle (circular motion), the picture of the forces is the same as shown in Figure 05-05. This time, the inertia force has a value of

x x 2

and it is called centrifugal force. In most of the Physics books, there is a kind of confusion because there is no distinction between the inertia force and the reaction force r. Our Figure 05-05 shows the important difference between them.

  • We should conclude that the Coriolis force is a kind of inertia force, and as such it is a perfectly newtonian force. This becomes obvious if we consider the elementary inertia forces of an accelerating body. This time, there is no more difference between the force co and the force r. It is the reaction force of that force which causes the acceleration. Of course, there must be a supporting structure which ties the elementary unit to the accelerating body. Without this structure, the elementary unit just precipitates until it finds its support. Such a precipitation is sometimes useful in human technology. For a living unit, like a human body, the precipitation of the elementary unit is fatal.

Action of the Coriolis Reaction Force

  • There is another important difference between the Coriolis and the centrifugal force. The vector of the Coriolis force never passes through the centre of rotation! This means that the Coriolis reaction force influences the angular velocity of the rotating platform.

  • We can make the following statement. When a body moves towards the axis of a rotating structure, it has the tendency to accelerate the rotation. If it moves away from the axis, then it slows down the rotation. This is a very interesting characteristic of the Coriolis forces. Here are some typical examples.

    1. In a well-known experiment, a person sits on a rotating chair and holds weight in his/her hands, as shown in Figure 05-06. Bringing the weights closer to his/her body, the chair accelerates. The school books introduce this fact as the principle of angular momentum conservation. This principle is correct if the whole system is closed (not affected by outside forces). But an acceleration can be caused only by a force and, this time, the force is a Coriolis reaction force.

    1. I made an interesting experiment by constructing a kind of windmill which I could call "Coriolis Windmill". In this engine, the air molecules are obliged to move towards the rotating axis, as shown in Figure 05-07. The rotating blades are the supporting structures causing the Coriolis effect. We can construct the running blades with a certain curvature in order to start the rotation. Once the rotation has been started, we can observe a gradual acceleration, which is obviously caused by the Coriolis reaction forces.

    1. Another example is the function of some hydraulic turbines with vertical axis, as shown in Figure 05-08. Generally, they are called reaction type turbines. (Sometimes the name "Francis turbine" or "Kaplan turbine" is also used.) In those turbines, the entering water flows in radial direction towards the rotating axis. The running blades deviate the direction of the water flow. This creates inertia forces and reaction forces which rotate the turbine.

Furthermore, the flow in the radial direction also creates the Coriolis effect, and the reaction force r helps the rotation. The vertical axis reaction turbine works with a relatively high efficiency. It is adapted world-wide in the hydraulic power stations.

    1. My last example is in connection with the earth's rotation. The rotating globe of our planet is surrounded by a rotating (or revolving) atmosphere. Near the earth's surface, the air molecules are following the earth's rotation. Molecules, which are not following this regular trajectory, are causing the phenomenon which we call wind. Winds are generally caused by the action of the sunshine and the gravitational forces. Most of the winds are local, and they are blowing in various directions. Sometimes, even human activities can create irregular air molecule movements.

However, near the equator, there is a steady and very regular wind activity. The air molecules are moving in the direction as shown in Figure 05-09. Near the equator, the molecules are considerably heated, and a hot air molecule has a strong tendency to move upwards. This creates a kind of vacuum, and the gravitational forces are pushing in cooler air molecules from the subtropical regions. This regular wind system is sometimes called "passat wind".

With those winds, huge air masses are continuously moving in a direction away from the earth's axis. Such a movement causes a Coriolis effect, and the reaction force r brakes the earth's rotation. It was observed that in the high altitudes, there is no such air movement which could compensate for this braking force.

  • The rotation of the earth and other planets is still a mystery for the science of Physics. Especially delicate is to explain the revolving motion of the atmosphere. Even more mysterious is the fact that the atmosphere of the planet Venus moves in the opposite direction to the globe's rotation.

  • We are taught in the schools that the rotating earth follows the principle of angular momentum conservation. This principle works only for a perfectly closed system, and such a thing does not exist in the real world. If the action of the sunshine and the gravitational forces can affect the earth's rotation, then the system is no more closed. Therefore, the momentum conservation principle can not be applied.

  • In another study entitled "The Living Planet Earth", I tried to evaluate the effect of this Coriolis type braking force. I found that the earth's rotation would slow down in such a way that each year, we would have our days 6 minutes longer. Such a slowing down does not exist, and I must conclude that the earth's rotation is "motorised". There must be a Nature-created organ which balances the braking force, and keeps the angular velocity constant.

The Partial Coriolis Forces

  • I already mentioned that the Coriolis forces caused by the earth's rotation are very weak. When a vehicle moves on a rail which is fixed to the rigid surface of the earth, we can approximately calculate the value of the force with the help of the formula

co = 2 x x r x

For example, if a 10 ton locomotive runs in the north-south direction with a velocity of 100 kilometre/hour, then a Coriolis force of about 50 newton will be created. That corresponds to about a 5 kilogramme weight, and such a force is quasi negligible. We should note that this train must run as close as possible to the north or south pole. Near the equator, a vehicle does not create Coriolis forces. (The velocity does not have radial component.)

  • The situation gets even more delicate if a body moves in the water, or if it flies in the air. The atmosphere is a kind of rotating structure, and it is able to support some forces. Otherwise, the birds and the airplanes could not fly. However, if the force (which causes the Coriolis acceleration) is supported by the air molecules, then this support is imperfect. The situation is similar if a body (or a ship) moves in the water.

  • Because of this imperfect support, the value

2 x x r x

can not be reached. We should multiply it by a factor which is a number between 0 (zero) and +1. Then, we should consider the Partial Coriolis Forces. It is regrettable that I could not find a scientific textbook which mentions these obvious natural phenomena.

  • The partial Coriolis forces are very weak indeed. If we calculate a force of 1 x 10-6 newton, then it is better to say that the force is quasi nil.

  • There are numerous movements in the air, which are apparently deviated and, in Physics, the deviation is attributed to the Coriolis forces. Let us mention the most typical example.

  • In 1851, the French physicist Foucault attached a 67 metre long pendulum on the ceiling of the Pantheon building in Paris. The attached 28 kilogramme mass described, in 24 hours, an amazing trajectory on the floor. This trajectory perfectly proves the rotation of our planet. Surprisingly, this trajectory is attributed to the Coriolis forces in all Physics books which I ever read. This is a scientific blunder. They introduced a kind of apparent Coriolis force by observing the movement in a rotating coordinate system. Without any reason, the apparent force is considered to be real. I call this a real confusion.

Remark: Of course, in the period of time when the pendulum swings in the north-south direction, there is a quasi infinite little partial Coriolis force. The trajectory is very regular, and it shows that this partial Coriolis force does not affect it.

  • The movement of the Foucault pendulum creates a typical apparent trajectory as observed on our rotating planet.

The Gyrocompass

  • In spite of the very weak partial Coriolis forces, there is an application which proves that such a force really exist.

  • Figure 05-10 shows the rotating earth (out of proportion indeed) and a fast running gyroscope. The direction of the gyroscope's axis differs from the direction of the earth's axis by an angle . One part of the molecules in the gyroscope (indicated by ) are moving towards the earth's axis, and another part (indicated by ) are moving away from it. Two partial Coriolis forces co are created, and the accelerating force is supported by the revolving air molecules of the atmosphere. Furthermore, there is a couple

co x

which acts on the gyroscope's axis. This couple vanishes only when the two axes are in the same direction.

  • I tried to calculate the forces co. Suppose that the gyroscope is a kind of electric motor with a rotor of 2 kilogramme mass. Its diameter is 0.2 metre, and it runs with 20000 revolutions/minute. I also assumed a 0.5 factor for the partial Coriolis force effect. I found that the force co is about 0.015 newton, which corresponds to about 0.0015 kilogramme weight. Such a force is able to move the gyroscope's axis if it is mounted in precisely working gimbal rings. (Generally, they use bearings working in liquid mercury.)

  • It is obvious that a gyrocompass works only in the revolving atmosphere near the earth's surface. It does not work in the very high altitudes or in a vacuum. It is a very useful instrument for the navigation.

  • I can also say that if we want to explain the function of the gyrocompass with the help of the apparent Coriolis forces, then the mathematical equations are so complicated that nobody can understand them.

Conclusion

  • All along in this research paper, I tried to explain how important it is to find the supporting structures when we deal with the phenomena of forces. I am convinced that all the forces of the universe must have supporting structures, and they must follow Newton's action-reaction principle.

  • It is very much regrettable that physicists never tried to find the supporting structures for the gravitational, electrostatic and magnetic forces.

  • I made huge efforts trying to introduce and explain the supporting structures for those "fundamental" forces. Without this knowledge, we will never understand how Nature works.

  • Furthermore, in the schools and universities, we indoctrinate the future generation with false scientific principles. The Coriolis force problem is just an example of this.

  • A confused natural science is very harmful to the whole humankind.

06 |THE PARADOX OF MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE

E = m x c2

  • Throughout a number of scientific books, we are frequently told that Mass () and Energy () are related according to the equation

= x 2

The factor 2 is the square of the velocity of light. This relationship is based upon Einstein's Theory of Relativity, and has been experimentally confirmed.

  • This relationship has had a tremendous influence upon the evolution of our industrialised society. Lured by the promise of endless energy resources, modern science has helped to create a mindless, energy-hungry society. Thus, the present insane efforts to harness nuclear energy gradually evolved. Not surprisingly, there are very few scientific textbooks which do not endorse and glorify Einstein's Theory of Relativity. For example, consider the following statement from Lincoln Barnett's "The Universe and Dr. Einstein".

    • = x 2 provides the answer to many of the long-standing mysteries of Physics. It forecasts how many grammes of Uranium must go into a bomb in order to destroy a city. Einstein showed that matter is energy, and energy is matter. Since July 16, 1945, man has been able to transform one into the other. For on that night at Alamagodro, New Mexico, man for the first time transmuted a substantial quantity of matter into light, heat, sound and motion which we call energy.

  • What a glorious achievement for science indeed?!

  • Furthermore, the Physics textbooks provide several experimental data that attempt to confirm the validity of the Theory of Relativity. However, little or no attempt seems to be made to point out the fragility and weaknesses of the "Relativity" equations. The history of science should have taught us that even the most solid scientific theories have had some weaknesses. It would, therefore, appear that the prospect of infinite sources of energy has caused scientists to lose their objectivity. In the next pages, I will endeavour to demonstrate some of the weaknesses of the Theory of Relativity.

  • If we look back at the history of science, then we can recall that (as early as in the 17th century) Galilei had suggested the possibility of measuring the velocity of light. Later, in 1675, the Danish astronomer Olaf Roemer predicted the finite velocity of light by observing the movement of Jupiter's satellites.

  • The first successful terrestrial measurements were made with an apparatus constructed by the French scientist Fizeau and later modified by Foucault. Since then, numerous measurements and calculations have been recorded. As a result, we now generally accept the value of the velocity of light to be about 3 x 108 metre/second in the vacuum. When light traverses some transparent media, its velocity diminishes to some degree. Modern scientific textbooks also recognise a duality in the light phenomenon. At times, it has the characteristics of wave motion. At other times, it appears like flying particles which Einstein called "photons". However, in both cases, the velocity is considered to be a vectorial quantity.

  • By considering as a vector, a very logical supposition can be made. If the light source is animated by a velocity relative to the observer, then the resulting

should be considered. For instance, if a rapid vehicle moved away from us with a velocity of 100 metre/second, and someone aboard this vehicle were to throw an object towards us with a velocity of 120 metre/second, then this object would approach us with a velocity of

120 - 100 = 20 metre/second

Somebody aboard the vehicle can measure the relative velocity (20 metre/second), and he/she knows the starting velocity of the object (120 metre/second). Consequently, he/she can calculate the velocity of the vehicle.

  • The American physicist Albert A. Michelson suggested that our planet is similar to a vehicle which travels in the "ether" with a certain velocity, which could be calculated by using the known velocity of light. However, the famous Michelson-Morley experiment (1878) ended in a surprising paradox. It was clearly demonstrated that the relative velocity of light does not depend on the velocity of the light source.

  • This paradox inspired mathematicians like Lorentz and Einstein to formulate the Theory of Relativity. First, they decided to consider the velocity of light as a maximum possible velocity in the universe and as a universal constant. Following that, they deduced the necessary mathematical formulae to explain the remaining paradox.

  • At this very beginning, they introduced the first contradiction and weakness to their theory. We know today that certain physical phenomena can be transferred over huge distances without any velocity, by what is known as a speed of propagation. Good examples are radio and television transmissions which sometimes use relay stations. Whether a radio broadcasting station is stationary or located in a supersonic jet moving in any direction does not affect our ability to receive those radio signals in the same instant. The media we call "ether" acts like a myriad of individual relay stations, and the signal is transferred from one relay station to another. The speed of the signal propagation depends only on the efficiency and activity of the relay stations.

  • It is most probable that the light phenomenon behaves in a similar way. With such a "relay" system, the paradox of the Michelson-Morley experiment is explained. What a pity that radio and television technology had not been developed at the end of the 19th century! Einstein would probably never have introduced his Theory of Relativity. Unaware of the notion of "relays", Lorentz and Einstein confused velocity with the speed of propagation. The speed of light is not a vector. It can not be added or subtracted from another vector, as we can not subtract two pears from three apples. The reason for their confusion is understandable, but their conclusions are nevertheless based on a scientific blunder.

  • In the future, science should introduce the subatomic units acting as relays, diffusion stations and receivers in the light phenomenon. Some contemporary physicists believe that atoms and subatomic units may behave like intelligent entities able to intercommunicate. For example, the American physicist Richard P. Feynman demonstrated that subatomic particles are capable of detecting and adopting the most favourable and effortless trajectory. Indeed, it would seem presumptuous to suppose that humans were the only ones capable of creating long-distance "wireless" communication systems. It would be appropriate to assume that Nature already possesses similar but far superior systems of its own.

  • Interestingly, this "relay" theory explains not only the paradox of the Michelson-Morley experiment but also all well-known phenomena related to light. The duality of the light phenomenon becomes unnecessary. For example,

    1. The receiving stations (the "eyes" of this system) record only those signals which are transferred in shortest time by the most efficiently working relay stations. This phenomenon is known as the Fermat principle.

    2. Sometimes, the last relay station, which transfers the light signal to our eyes, is not located on the straight line between the receiver and the light source. Then, it appears to us that the light is somehow "bent", or more precisely diffracted.

    3. The light signal influences the relay and receiver stations, and those "intelligent" subatomic units react. Sometimes, we perceive those actions as a form of energy (such as photoelectric effect or the pressure of light). Thus, we no longer need to think of "energy hurtling" through the space.

  • To continue with our analysis of the Theory of Relativity, let us imagine a coordinate system (',','), moving relatively to another resting coordinate system (,,), animated by a velocity in the direction or ', as shown in Figure 06-01. If we want to describe a movement which occurs in the moving system and observe it from a resting system, then we should use the classical "Galilean" transformation equations

= ' + x

and

= '

where is the time.

  • By introducing the constant velocity of light in both systems (according to the Michelson-Morley experiment),

= (Displacement) / (Time) = ' / ' = /

we arrive at the famous Lorentz's transformation equations.

  • In the kinematic branch of Physics, the Lorentz transformation is a brilliant mathematical exhibition. We can only question the validity of its starting point! The resulting equations

v = 0 x (1 - 2)(1/2)

and

v = 0 x (1 - 2)(-1/2)

where

= /

suggest that the dimension (v) of an object animated by a high velocity () decreases (dimension in the direction of ), and that this dimension becomes 0 (zero) if the velocity reaches the velocity of light .

  • In addition, the time factor (v) of a moving system increases with the velocity. In other words, the "clock" of such a system would appear to slow down.

  • One should point out, that those changes in size (v) and time (v) are observed only by a stationary observer in the resting coordinate (,,). This means that the changes that the Lorentz transformation equations predict are not real but only apparent!!

  • Einstein extended the Lorentz equations into the dynamic branch of Physics which deals with masses and forces. He postulated that no acceleration would be possible in the vicinity of the velocity of light. Newton's famous equation

(Force) = (Mass) x (Acceleration)

suggests that acceleration must become 0 (zero) if the value of mass reaches an infinitely large value. It became perfectly logical to use an equation similar to the Lorentz transformation. So, the equation

= 0 x (1 - 2)(-1/2)

where

= /

was introduced. 0 is the resting mass value of the body in motion.

  • Unfortunately, this equation carries with it an element of ambiguity. Why? Because it is very difficult to perceive how a purely scalar value like mass () can apparently change. Einstein's equation is a precarious scientific tight rope act, trying to link the apparent with the real. To add to this confusion, Einstein introduced the concept of energy in those "relativity" based equations. The notion of apparent energy becomes even more ludicrous. However, the mathematical operation is definitely brilliant.

  • When one calculates the work done by a body of mass increasing its velocity from 0 to , we obtain the well-known formula of kinetic energy.

k = (1/2) x x 2 - (1/2) x x 02

Taking into account the constant velocity of light and the changes of mass due to varying velocities, the formula of kinetic energy should be written in the form

k = x 2 - 0 x 2

Why? Because if we substitute the value of the transformation equation, then we have

k = 0 x 2 x (1 - 2)(-1/2) - 0 x 2

The

(1 - 2)(-1/2)

can be expanded by the binomial theorem to

1 + (1/2) x 2 + (terms in 4, 6, etc.)

Remembering that

= /

and if the velocity is low, then the higher power terms can be neglected, and k can be reduced to that familiar form

k = 0 x 2 x (1 + (1/2) x 2) - 0 x 2 = (1/2) x 0 x 2

  • Consequently, the general classical form of kinetic energy

k = (1/2) x x 2

should be written

k = x 2

in the "relativity" form.

Einstein's Strange Idea

  • This "Mass-Energy Equivalence" equation was an excellent tool for Einstein to predict the immense power of the atom. Nevertheless, this huge "kinetic" energy assumes that within the atomic structure, there are some units which are animated by a real velocity of light . Then, according to the transformation equation, even the smallest mass value becomes infinite. The energy of a single atom could then be infinite?!

  • If we calculate the energy of 0.001 kilogramme of matter, then we arrive at the awesome figure of 9 x 1013 joule. We can similarly estimate how many grammes of Uranium are required to destroy a city! But in each of these calculations, we must use the "resting" mass value 0, but no one seems to understand why! There is obvious confusion at any rate.

  • Modern Physics accepts the principle that energy is manifested in a number of forms, and that one form can be transformed into another. All physicists know that heat energy can easily and instantaneously change into motion or kinetic energy. However, the reverse is not the case. Transforming kinetic energy into heat energy can not be done instantaneously. Yet, this is precisely what seems to happen in a fission reaction and in a nuclear explosion. Until the mechanism of this instantaneous transformation has been explained, the

= x 2

formula remains a dark mystery!

  • With regard to the experimental data which would confirm Einstein's Theory of Relativity, we should point out that in our living space, we can not create sufficient velocities to prove anything. As soon as an object travels with a velocity greater than 12 kilometre/second, it leaves the gravitational field of the earth. And this is still too slow to affect the mass value!!

  • One possibility is offered by a scientific hypothesis which suggests that inside a cathode ray tube, there are electrons moving at approximately 10% of the velocity of light. Furthermore, there are scientists who report that within some powerful particle accelerators, some "protons" will travel at velocities of up to 0.99 x (i.e., 99% of the velocity of light). Let us note that the flying subatomic particle notion is generally accepted by the scientific community, although no experiment has yet absolutely proved it.

  • In the famous Thomson experiment (first performed in 1897), it is believed that subatomic particles called electrons are generated by the cathode and accelerated through the hole of the anode which has a high electric potential value of volt. The resting mass value 0 of the electron is believed to be 9.1 x 10-31 kilogramme, and it has an elementary negative charge of 1.6 x 10-19 coulomb. The accelerated electron travels with a velocity , and is deviated by an electrostatic field or by a magnetic field (perpendicular to Figure 06-02). The electron beam then strikes the fluorescent screen at point . The trajectory of the beam can be made visible, and it is possible to measure the radius of curvature in the magnetic field. Naturally, the flying electrons are also influenced by gravity, but one can easily demonstrate that this effect is negligible.

  • The acceleration of the electron results from the electrostatic energy x . To calculate this, we have the equation

x = (1/2) x 0 x 2

or

2 = 2 x ( / 0) x

where x is measured in electron-volt which equals to 1.6 x 10-19 joule.

  • By measuring the radius and knowing the strength of the magnetic field , we have another equation

/ 0 = / ( x )

where is measured in (newton) / (coulomb x metre/second) which equals to 1 weber/metre2.

  • Using these two equations, the mass of the flying particle as well as its velocity could be calculated. It is believed that in Thomson's cathode ray tube, the velocity of the electron is in the order of 107 metre/second, which is about 10% of the velocity of light. The mass increase would be very slight (about 1%). However, by making several measurements and by increasing the velocities (with increasing anode voltages ), some increased values of mass were observed. These findings were world-wide proclaimed as absolute proof of Einstein's Theory of Relativity.

  • In modern particle accelerators and cyclotrons, electrons and other atomic particles are supposedly accelerated by using very high values. Certain accelerators are reported to use values in the range of 500 G (1 G = 109 ). Ignoring for a moment the Theory of Relativity, if we calculate the velocity of an electron accelerated by only 1 G of energy, then we find that the velocity obtained would be about 50 times as much as the velocity of light ! Of course, Einstein's equation

= 0 x (1 - 2)(-1/2)

precludes any velocities higher than , and requires instead the electron to increase greatly its value of mass. This time, however, the mass increase can not just be apparent, lest the electrons will beat the unbeatable speed of light record!! In other words, we have a reality explained with a "relative transformation" method. This is indeed a case of real confusion!!

  • We can find velocity values in the range of 0.999 x for electrons, protons, etc., and for other yet-to-be-discovered subatomic particles. The deflection method used in Thomson's experiment works even with such high velocity values. The particle passes through a cloud chamber in order to be visible, and it is deflected by a strong magnetic field. By measuring the curvature of the deflection, we can calculate the mass value and the velocity of the particle. We can even predict if it is positively or negatively charged.

  • However, because of such high velocity , there is a huge value of acceleration

2 / e

where e is the radius of the earth, acting upward (vertical direction). On the long trajectory of the accelerator, the particle is slightly deviated, which diminishes the accuracy of the measurement.

  • Thus, when we are measuring or calculating the behaviour of subatomic particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, mesons, etc., we could be just chasing ghosts that do not even exist.

  • In the cathode ray tube experiment, I would suggest we replace the electron beam theory with that of a special type of magnetic pattern. This could be represented by circular lines of forces forming magnetic "pipes", as shown in Figure 06-03.

  • The diameter of these pipes would be in the order of atomic dimension (~10-10 metre). These magnetic patterns are deviated by electrostatic and magnetic fields. They create electromagnetic inductions and visible photoelectric phenomena on a fluorescent screen. They would also explain the reaction force of the deviating force that tends to push the cathode ray tube in the opposite direction (following Newton's third axiom). With the flying electron theory, this reaction force would be hard to explain.

Conclusion

  • To conclude, a number of present modern scientific theories need to be reexamined and revised using as a starting point the Michelson-Morley experiment.

  • As a result of this, if Einstein's

= x 2

is shelved, then we will have to explain nuclear power in a different way. It is very easy by adopting the theory of individually acting, intelligent or "living" atoms. This, of course, would have a tremendous impact on our modern over-industrialised society. The most delicate task would be to persuade present-day science to abandon its hopeless dream of achieving fusion energy. This notion came about as a result of Einstein's suggestion of mass-energy equivalence. Once

= x 2

vanishes, so will the fusion idea.

  • At present, we note an ever-increasing concern for the safety of fission nuclear reactors, and almost everyone is hoping that such unsafe nuclear power will soon cease to be used. At the same time, energy-hungry scientists and technocrats are warning us that, without fusion, our society is doomed to return to the Dark Ages. These are absurd lies and exaggerations.

  • Although our civilisation is living its declining "old age" period of its history, we can certainly extend its life by thousands of years, using some moderation and by curbing our voracious industrial lifestyle. This would ensure some hope for the future of the next generation.

  • On the other hand, if we continue to rape our planet, then we are gradually achieving the suicide of our civilisation. This will be a suicide due to ignorance!! A great deal of this is due to Einstein's theories having been totally accepted by modern science.

  • In Christian Andersen's well-known story of the "Emperor's Invisible Clothes", the people finally discover the truth, and the silly emperor is left only covered with ridicule. Similarly, modern science may have been duped by a clever but erroneous notion.

07 |EVALUATION OF NEWMAN'S ENERGY MACHINE

Introduction

  • An electric motor working with 110% efficiency!! Could it really exist? This question will be answered in the following pages.

  • Joseph W. Newman from Lucedale (Mississippi, U.S.A.) claims that he has achieved this incredible result with a machine he constructed. Within the magnetic field of a huge solenoid coil, a strong heavy permanent magnet was rotating. The direction of the field was changed twice during each revolution with the help of a commutator system.

  • Mr. Newman applied for a patent, and claimed that the output power of his machine was greater than the electric input. The U.S. patent office rejected his application on the grounds that it violates the first law of thermodynamics (often called the Law of Energy Conservation).

  • Disappointed, Newman finally published a book "The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman".

  • I found his book fascinating to read even if I did not agree with several of Mr. Newman's ideas. I was especially intrigued by the performance analysis of this device (Page 24 of the book), made by Dr. Roger Hastings (principal physicist of Sperry Univac Corporation and former professor of Physics at the North Dakota State University). He seems to be a very competent and open-minded scientist, who tries to predict the motor's performance with the help of conventional mathematical formulae (formulae based strictly on the Law of Energy Conservation). He concludes as follows. "The predicted input power is in agreement with the measured input. The output power (in excess of input) is a non-conventional result. Introduction of a new theory will be required to mathematically describe the result".

  • I completely share Dr. Hastings's opinion. It is obvious that, for a second time in history, the Law of Energy Conservation is challenged. (The first challenge was the discovery of Radium.)

  • With a very simple experiment, we can demonstrate that the Law of Energy Conservation can easily be challenged. A strong permanent magnet bar is held in a vertical position, as shown in Figure 07-01, above a little piece of magnet (or a piece of iron). If we start to decrease the gap , then we reach a point at which the little magnet instantaneously jumps in the vertical direction and sticks to the larger magnet. We have here a machine which, for a fraction of a second, works with an infinitely high efficiency. For example, if the mass of the little magnet is 0.001 kilogramme and it suddenly rises 0.01 metre, then a work (or energy) of about 0.000098 joule is created without any input. Furthermore, there is no change in the molecular structure of the magnet (no chemical reaction) and no destruction or change in the atomic structure (no fission or fusion). It is absolutely obvious that the Law of Energy Conservation does not apply if we try to explain this experiment.

  • Newman's device allows those magnetic forces to work as much as possible. Of course, he encounters some difficulties. However, to categorically refute the value of this machine on the sole grounds that it violates the Law of Energy Conservation is wrong and unfair. In my opinion, the most urgent challenge for science is to introduce the new theories which will adequately explain the non-conventional and surprising observations.

The Magnetic Flux Lines

  • First of all, I will attempt to introduce the notion of the magnetic flux lines with the help of my Living Atom Theory. The strange output energy of our previous experiment can be explained only with the help of this theory.

  • The magnetic flux line (sometimes called magnetic induction line) is still a mysterious and controversial entity in the electromagnetic chapter of modern Physics. Some textbooks introduce it as an imaginary line (like the line of force) which helps us to understand some phenomena.

  • Several physicists still prefer to deal with magnetic poles, although it is becoming increasingly evident that magnetic poles do not exist. The flux lines which I will describe are slightly different.

  • They are physically real existing structures, sometimes acting like stretched elastic strings. Because of their tendency to shorten, they are able to create forces between different bodies. In certain conditions, those forces are doing work. In other words, they are creating energy!

  • The flux lines are composed of invisible subatomic units, which have living characteristics. This means that they are able to individually create movements and accelerations (which automatically means forces). Furthermore, they are clever enough to choose the most favourable position in order to assure their best vital equilibrium. Those subatomic entities have not yet been introduced by modern Physics. This task will remain for future scientists.

  • In Figure 07-02, I try to represent the approximate flux line picture of our previous example. With the short arrow system (), we can represent the characteristics of those subatomic units. They are tiny little living gyroscopes, and they can individually control the direction of their rotating axes. (For more complete details, see "Les Atomes Vivants" by Szekely, Etienne.)

  • If the position of the arrows is or , then the pattern is stable. This explains why the flux lines are forming closed circuits. On the other hand, the position or is unstable, and the living gyroscopes start their efforts to find more stable positions. The direction of the arrows determines the polarity of the magnet. (Poles do not exist.)

  • In the gap between the two magnets of Figure 07-02, we find the unstable pattern . If the gap is short enough, then the whole picture of the flux lines changes, as shown in Figure 07-03.

  • Then, we have stretched elastic strings which tend to shorten, and force acts on the bodies of the magnets. Of course, this force, which is supported by the structure of the flux lines, acts according to Newton's third law of motion (action and reaction). If the force is stronger than the weight of the little magnet, then a work is done (energy is created), and the input energy is furnished by the work done by the subatomic living gyroscopes.

  • It is interesting to note that this example does not violate the Law of Energy Conservation, but supports and quasi introduces the Living Atom Theory.

  • Our experiment also teaches us that, while doing work, the magnetic flux lines continuously change their patterns. The velocity at which the gyroscope axes change their positions is phenomenal.

  • The subatomic units of the flux lines are equally present inside the material or in the air or even in vacuum. Empty space or vacuum is not nothing, but it is completely filled with different kinds of living atoms and subatomic units. The Living Atom Theory clearly and logically explains this fact.

  • If a flux line traverses the structure of a ferromagnetic material, then a strange and exceptional phenomenon occurs. The flux line can act like a catalyser, and a huge quantity of additional flux lines are created. If the inductor (catalyser) stops to act, then some of those additional flux lines disappear and some remain, depending on the softness or hardness of the ferromagnetic material.

  • Although the phenomenon of ferromagnetism was studied and exploited in a vast number of experiments and measurements, the modern theory is still uncertain. Only the Living Atom Theory can clearly explain this phenomenon.

  • With the help of the living magnetic flux lines, we can write the correct formula which calculates the efficiency of an electric motor.

Efficiency () = ((Work of the flux lines - Losses) / (Input power's work) x 100) %

  • In conventional electric motors, the value of is always less than 100%. This is because the work of the flux lines is very limited, and not because they have to obey the Law of Energy Conservation.

  • In the armature and the air gap of a conventional electric motor, the variation of the flux is very moderate. By contrast, the flux in Newman's machine varies considerably during each revolution and, as I stated before, it is this variation which indicates the value of the work done by the magnetic flux lines.

  • Figure 07-04 illustrates the pattern of the flux lines in three different positions. (The permanent magnet rotates clockwise.)

  • In Position b, the magnetic field of the solenoid collapses and changes its direction with the help of the commutator . Position c shows the flux line pattern after its direction is changed.

  • For the Newman's machine, the efficiency formula should slightly be modified to

Efficiency () = ((Work of the flux lines + Surplus energy created by the collapse - Losses) / (Input power's work) x 100) %

  • This energy can approximately be evaluated by the formula

a x ( x ( / ))2 (for each revolution)

where a is the capacity value of the system, is the number of turns of the coil, and

( / )

is the instantaneous change in flux value. One part of this energy should be returned to the system by the battery, but this is done in Position c, where the flux value is the least, while the collapse is done when the flux is at its maximum value. The increase of the flux value is realised by the work of the flux lines, and not by the input current. With a huge volume of copper wire solenoid, the capacity value and the collapsing power is considerable. (It seems that Mr. Newman used it to light up a fluorescent tube.)

  • The continuously changing flux and the collapse transform the solenoid current into an intricate electromagnetic vibration. It is difficult to correctly measure the input power. Sometimes, an oscilloscope type wattmeter was used in order to record the instantaneous tension and intensity values. (Tektronix Oscilloscope model 2215, Page 43 of Newman's book.)

  • The scientific questions arising from Newman's experiments are very significant. With the Living Atom Theory and the concept of living flux lines, it is conceivable that a 110% efficient electromagnetic device could be achieved.

My Own Experiments and Measurements

  • My curiosity prompted me to make my own experiments and measurements in order to verify the claims made by Mr. Newman. To cut down on expenses, I made several modifications to the original device.

    1. Unable to find a huge and strong permanent magnet, I chose to replace it with a solenoid-governed electromagnet. This creates the same kind of flux line pattern as a permanent magnet. (Of course, I could disregard the current used by the solenoid when calculating the energy balance.)

    2. I also used a soft ferromagnetic core to increase the number of flux lines without the need of a huge coil. In this manner, I was able to rotate the magnetic rotor using a standard 12 volt automobile battery, as shown in Figure 07-05.

  • The rotor () of the device was about 0.7 metre long, its weight about 50 kilogramme. The solenoid () was made of 8000 turns of 18 gauge wire, and the steel core was made of 26 gauge transformer steel sheets, with a total cross section of about 0.1 x 0.1 metre2. The commutator inverses the direction of the solenoid current in the position as shown.

  • I am convinced that the soft ferromagnetic core reinforces the work of the flux lines. It is interesting to consider the magnetising curve of a good quality transformer steel, as shown in Figure 07-06. It is important to keep the magnetic intensity value

( x ) /

in the shaded area, where we have a high permeability value and very low hysteresis losses. By braking the rotating shaft, we go from Position a to Position b. The solenoid current will slightly increase, but this is compensated by a stronger magnetic field. We can state that only the special characteristics of ferromagnetic materials (soft and hard) allow us to suggest that a 110% efficient electromagnetic device is possible.

  • When the magnet-rotor rotated, we found some amazing results. The battery seems to be rather charged than discharged!! The needle of a two-way ammeter oscillated around the neutral position, and when we measured the average current, we found it to have a negative value.

  • This amazing observation was similarly made by Mr. Newman, as well as the two scientists who evaluated the performance of his device (Dr. Roger Hastings and Michael Meatyard). They used a dual-trace oscilloscope to record the negative input power.

  • With the help of the Living Atom Theory and the notion of working magnetic flux lines, it is very simple to explain this unusual (non-conventional) behaviour. We just have to follow one end of the rotating magnet during its revolution, as shown in Figure 07-07. In Position 0, the static magnetic field collapses. The rotating magnet induces a flux line pattern in the stator, which is in the opposite direction, and which also induces a current in the solenoid charging the battery. This effect is even reinforced by the induced tension due to the collapsing field.

  • It is evident that in the period between Position 0 and Position 1, the rotating shaft is braked, but fortunately this energy is not completely lost. It charges the battery. Of course, we have a loss of some energy with the sparks on the commutator, but this loss can be reduced by using capacitors.

  • In Position 1, a new pattern of flux lines is established, as shown in Figure 07-08. Then, the flux lines start to do their useful work, for a relatively long period, until Position 2 is reached. After Position 2, we have an identical half-revolution.

  • The working flux lines provide us with three different things.

    1. The necessary torque for the rotation.

    2. The value of the flux is constantly increasing between Position 1 and Position 2. This means that the collapse occurs at the maximum flux value. The solenoid current works like an electromagnetic seesaw which gets a useful impulse during each "swinging" period (half-rotation).

    3. The increasing flux induces a countertension in the solenoid which, between Position 1 and Position 2, keeps the solenoid current at a very low value. At the starting of the rotation, the current is about 0.2 ampere (due to the ohmic resistance of the coil). If the magnet rotates at about 100 rotations/minute, then the current (between Position 1 and Position 2) is about 0.02 ampere. We should notice that even with this little current, the magnetic intensity of the coil works in a favourable condition, as shown in Figure 07-06.

  • Thus, the main role of the battery is only to change the flux line pattern as fast as possible between Position 0 and Position 1.

  • The rotation is assured only if the work of the flux lines overcomes the braking effect between Position 0 and Position 1, plus the friction losses in the bearings. We can see how important it is to reach Position 1 as fast as possible.

  • Meanwhile, we can state that if a permanent magnet of such a dimension rotates in a solenoid-governed magnetic field, then such a device can easily reach the 100% efficiency. This rotation was observed by Mr. Newman and verified in my experiments.

  • The torque of the rotating shaft can be considered as a net surplus power. I tried to measure its exact value with the help of a Prony brake, and I found some interesting and surprising results. In spite of all kinds of adjustments and modifications, I never could obtain a surplus power value exceeding 0.2 Watt. With stronger braking, the rotation stopped.

  • However, I assume that this very low value could perhaps be slightly increased by using a better-quality transformer steel, and by improving the commutator system, which is the most delicate component of the device. This commutator system should be easily and precisely adjustable, just like the ignition system in an internal combustion engine.

  • At this point, I stopped all my experiments for the following reasons.

    1. My interest is purely scientific, and my only goal was to get a better understanding of how the living flux lines work.

    2. I do not seek to obtain huge energy sources for humankind. On the contrary, I am happy to know that Nature does not readily offer "free meals" for our energy-hungry technology. A huge source of free power would likely be used for destruction by human societies, as history proved it.

  • Meanwhile, it is possible that some researchers will in the future try to improve Newman's device. One interesting possibility would be make the stator of the machine a strong permanent magnet, and to change regularly the polarity of a solenoid-governed rotor. Such a scheme might become attractive with improved ferromagnetic materials, and if room-temperature superconductors were to become a reality. At this point, it is possible that Newman's machine will represent a very clean, safe, but still very moderate energy source.

Conclusion

  • Newman's machine has an enormous scientific value. It forces modern science to recognise that atoms and subatomic units are capable of doing work. However, the purpose of this work is not to furnish vast amount of power for humankind, but rather it is an effort to find new situations which better assure their vital equilibrium. This seems to be the most logical explanation of the Law of Energy Conservation.

  • The little exception provided by the ferromagnetic materials and copper coils does not violate the general law. It only obliges us to accept the Living Atom Theory.

  • I consider Mr. Newman, Dr. Hastings, Dr. Meatyard and all those who endorsed this device (Page 40 of the book) as pioneers of a radical scientific revolution, which will ultimately lead humankind to a better understanding of how Nature works.

08 |MORE ABOUT THE LIVING ATOMS

Introduction

  • With the help of the apparatus which demonstrates Newman's machine, I made a very surprising experiment. Realising the arrangement shown in Figure 08-01, I noticed that the ohmic resistance of Coil 2 () slightly changes if we drastically change the flux value of the magnetic circuit with the help of Coil 1 and the commutator .

  • This experiment works only if we fulfill the following conditions.

    1. We should feed Coil 1 with a perfect direct current furnished by fully-charged batteries with constant tension values.

    2. The measurement can be made only if the flux of the magnetic circuit is perfectly constant. By activating the commutator , we first get a transient variable flux, which generates a well-known phenomenon of induced tension in Coil 2. We should disregard this transient stage, and wait until the needle of the ohmmeter stops to move.

    3. Several measurements should be made by changing the direction of the flux line pattern several times. Thus, we eliminate the effect of the residual magnetism in the iron core.

  • We proved that the ohmic resistance of an electrical circuit depends on the surrounding magnetic flux value

= ()

This is a surprising and very far-reaching fact. It means that any direct current intensity value in Coil 2 would also depend on the magnetic flux pattern

= ()

We must conclude by saying that there is no such thing as an electric current. It is just a human-invented concept in order to draw an analogy between electricity and water flow. Furthermore, it is simpleminded to assume that some charged subatomic entities (electrons) are travelling inside an electric conductor. The effect, which we call intensity, and which we measure with ammeters, is entirely caused by the actions of different flux line patterns working outside and inside the conductor.

  • The importance of the living flux line patterns becomes more evident. Let us analyse the problem in detail.

  • I should start with the mathematical approach. Having built a magnetic circuit (with soft ferromagnetic iron core and with the help of a DC fed coil), we know that the value of the flux is a function of the current intensity in the coil.

= ()

We even know that with moderate values, the flux is proportional to the intensity.

= constant x

and the constant depends on the characteristic of the ferromagnetic material.

  • Right now, we are reversing the problem, and we are asking the question: How is the intensity in the coil affected by changing the value of the flux ? Mathematically, we investigate the inverse function

= ()

which, to my knowledge, never was considered in the electromagnetic science.

  • The

= ()

function has a large domain, which even allows the possibility of

= 0 if = 0

Not so with the function

= ()

It is impossible to stop completely the intensity by altering the value of the flux. We experience only very slight changes in the current intensity, and we need to have a very sensitive ohmmeter or ammeter. But the result is convincing.

  • The ohmic resistance of an electric circuit depends on the flux line pattern!!

  • The domain and the range of the functions

= ()

or

= ()

are very restricted. This can be explained with the help of Figure 08-02, which represents an enlarged part of an electric conductor (of circular section), and which is connected to the and poles of a battery. We should consider two different kinds of flux line patterns. Pattern 1 is created outside the conductor in the air or even in the vacuum. Pattern 2 acts inside the conductor's material. It is established in the intermolecular spaces of the conducting metal. The ohmic resistance value of a conductor is mainly conditioned by the inside flux line pattern. This means that the molecular structure of a copper conductor allows better formation of the inside flux line pattern than an iron conductor does.

  • A stronger inside pattern creates a stronger outside pattern. Thus, we can evaluate the electric intensity by measuring the strength of the outside pattern. The needle of the ammeter is mainly deviated by the outside pattern!

  • In my experiment, only the outside pattern, created by Coil 1, can be altered. This change has just a very small influence on the inside pattern of Coil 2. This is similar to somebody who wants to shake the top of a 30-metre high tree by pushing the trunk near the soil. He/She needs a lot of patience to observe the deviation at the top!

  • Introducing the inside flux line pattern is a new scientific idea!! Meanwhile, its existence can be proved with another experimental fact.

  • Figure 08-03 shows the principle of an electric motor often called homopolar machine. A circular metal plate rotates like a conventional electric motor, if is traversed by a magnetic field (, ) and is connected to a battery with the help of sliding contacts, as shown. This time, the part of the electric circuit, which traverses the metal plate, does not create an outside flux line pattern!!

  • We can easily prove it by realising the arrangement, shown in Figure 08-04. On a horizontal circular metal plate, with two compasses 1 and 2 (set in the north-south direction as shown), only the compass 2 deviates. The part of the circuit passing through the plate has only inside flux line pattern!!

  • With this inside pattern, we can logically explain the force which rotates the homopolar motor. Figure 08-05 (A) and Figure 08-05 (B) explain the basic principles of a conventional electric motor and a homopolar machine, respectively. In both cases, the force is created by the distorted magnetic field between the poles and .

  • In some scientific writings, we read that the magnetic field acts directly on the moving electric charge, which means that forces are pushing directly the charged "electrons" that are continuously jumping from one atom to the other. This hypothesis is very fragile because it violates a perfectly proved natural law, better-known as Newton's third law of motion.

  • Anywhere in the universe, a force can only be created if it is supported by a firm structure. At the same time, this structure is charged by a reaction force of the same value, but acting in the opposite direction.

  • In an electric motor, there is a flux line pattern firmly connected to the rotor, and another pattern firmly connected to the stator of the motor. With the help of those patterns, real forces are acting between the two rigid bodies (rotor and stator). The reaction forces are evident, too! Saying that those forces and reaction forces are supported by the travelling electrons is a scientific paradox.

  • By studying the living magnetic flux line patterns, I came to the conclusion that they are playing a much more important rôle in common physical phenomena than it is presently thought.

  • Innumerable is the variety of the flux line patterns. They explain nearly every phenomena in the electrostatic, electrodynamic, magnetic and electric fields. They are present even in the phenomenon which we call "radiation".

  • For example, the radiation called "cosmic ray" is mainly caused by a special kind of flux line pattern. It acts like a continuous "direct current" coming from the gravitational structure of the solar system in the direction of the earth's centre. It transforms our planet into a perfect Nature-created homopolar electric motor. The idea that our planet rotates in an empty space and obeys an idealised mathematical formula is just another scientific paradox.

Living Atom Theory

  • Considering the extreme importance of the flux line patterns, scientists should firstly try to introduce the natural units which are able to create such patterns. This task can be done with the help of the Living Atom Theory.

  • At first, this theory extends our horizon in the directions of the macrocosm and the microcosm.

  • In the direction of the infinite large, we should consider the solar system (and the other similar celestial units) as huge atoms, and let us represent them with the sign +1. The +1 contains the elementary atomic units represented by the sign 0.

Remark: Note that at the present time, science reserves the name "atom" only for the units 0. The discovered 0 atoms are listed in the periodic table of the elements.

  • In order to complete the picture of the +1, the Living Atom Theory introduces another kind of atom, called free atom, with the sign 00. The free atom 00 does not contain electrons (atomic planets), and does not form molecules or matters. Nevertheless, its rôle is very important because it creates the gravitational structure of the solar system +1. Furthermore, we can state that everything in the solar system +1 is built up of the elementary units 0 and 00.

  • In the direction of the infinite little, this theory recognises the perfect similarity between the atoms +1 and 0. The only important difference is in their dimensions. Consequently, it is logical to assume that a secondary atom exists (with the sign -1), which is the elementary building block of the atoms 0 and 00. Then, we should introduce the secondary free atom -10, which creates the special gravitational structure of the atoms 0 and 00.

  • By introducing the free atom -10, we found the natural living entity which is able to create the different flux line patterns.

More About the Free Atom

  • The free atom -10 will oblige the science to reconsider the whole theory of electricity. It will simplify and unify all problems in connection with electricity and magnetism. To explain all the details would require several volumes. In this short text, I try to give some basic principles.

  • Let us imagine a tiny little gyroscope which is embedded in a spherical elastic media, as shown in Figure 08-06. Its dimension is about 10-36 metre.

Remark: 10-36 is a very small real number, but still very far from the absolute 0 (zero). The reality of the infinite large and of the infinite little proves the extreme beauty and superiority of Nature.

  • Considering the series of atoms

-n, ..., -1, 0, +1, ..., +n

we should admit that the space of our universe is completely filled with the free atoms -10. They are present inside and outside of the matter, of the living bodies and even in the spaces which we could erroneously consider to be empty. Note that in a volume of 1 millimetre3, there is room for about 10100 free atoms -10!!

  • We can imagine the space of our universe in two different ways.

    1. We can consider the picture of an enlarged section, as shown in Figure 08-07. There are the 0 atoms or the molecules (atomic agglomerations), surrounded by free atoms 00 and embedded in an infinite large elastic medium which is built up of 00-s.

    1. We can disregard the border lines of the 0-s and the 00-s. Then, we see three kinds of elementary subatomic globes.

      1. The nucleus (sun) of the atom 0.

      2. The electron (planet) of the atom 0.

      3. The nucleus (sun) of the atom 00.

    2. Those globes are embedded in an infinite large elastic structure built up of free atoms -10. Thus, the -10 becomes the most important component of our universe.

  • The gyroscope of the -10 has living characteristics. This means that a special organ directs its axis to a position where its dynamic equilibrium is secured for the best. In this position, another Nature-created organ rotates the gyroscope as fast as possible.

Remark: In Physics, the behaviour of gyroscopes is analysed with the help of mathematical formulae by considering mainly the inertia of the rotating body. This mathematical model is valid and very useful indeed. It shows the best dynamic equilibrium with a fast rotating gyroscope. The error often committed by some physicists is to assume that planets and other rotating units of the universe exactly obey the mathematical formulae.

For example, let us think about the perfect dynamic equilibrium of a fast running bicycle. Meanwhile, we can not disregard the action of the pedalling person who is able to change the gyroscopic characteristics. Similarly, all natural rotating globes of the universe are mainly governed by Nature-created living organs.

  • Among the countless -10 gyroscopes, there are always some unstables which are acting to find a more favourable position. They create accelerations and, according to a basic law of Physics, accelerations are always connected with forces.

  • Classifying the different flux line patterns, we firstly recognise two principal families. In order to deal with them, we use the short arrow system () which indicates to us the position of the surrounding -20 free atoms, as explained in Chapter 03.

    1. Figure 08-08 shows the well-known loop pattern. It is generally created in the air (or in the vacuum), but it can pass through any matter, and it passes very often through a ferromagnetic material. Its presence can easily be demonstrated with a compass.

    1. Another pattern, as shown in Figure 08-09, is built up of circular elements, and has a form similar to a magnetic tube. This time, a compass needle shows only the magnetic tubes of considerably large dimensions, which are created around an electric conductor. Countless are the physical phenomena which prove the existence of magnetic tubes with microscopic dimensions and which can not deviate a compass needle.

    1. To explain the phenomena of electrostatics, we should introduce a third important flux pattern, this time inside the atom 0. The gravitational structure of the atom 0 is asymmetric and complex because of the presence of atomic planets (electrons). It often happens that unstable -10-s create interatomic flux line patterns, resulting in tensions of the elastic gravitational structure. A very strong natural tendency to discharge those dangerous (electric) tensions exists, and then we experience a phenomenon which we presently call "electric current".

  • Awesome is the importance of the free atoms 00 and -10 in our physical world. With their help, we can also clarify the mysteries of the gravitational forces, the mysteries of the light and mysteries of the phenomena which we erroneously call "electromagnetic waves". The supersensitive living gyroscope of the free atom -10 acts like a relay station, and allows huge distance intercommunications between different units in the universe.

The Concept of Energy

  • Finally, the Living Atom Theory clarifies the delicate and controversial problem of our modern time, the Concept of energy.

  • All working actions in our physical world, which we can evaluate with energy units, are created by the living microcosm. For example, each atom 0 acts individually (if it is influenced by other similar units), and sometimes we experience this action as "heat energy". Similarly, actions of some subatomic living entities are experienced as "light energy".

  • If we try to explain the phenomena of Physics with the concept of energy or with the Law of Energy Conservation, then we encounter a lot of contradictions.

  • In the beginning of this study, I mentioned such a paradox when I analysed the work (energy) created by a permanent magnet, but let us mention another typical example.

  • When a person is just standing and holding on his/her shoulder a weight of several hundred kilogrammes, no work is done, which could be evaluated by our concept of energy. Meanwhile, the atoms inside his/her body are doing a tremendous work, and such a person gets tired fast. At this point, it would be silly to calculate an energy balance between the calorie value of the food and the work done by the muscles. The best we can do is to state that a living entity is able to use some activities of the living microcosm, and with their help, accelerations and forces are created.

  • This is a very complex procedure indeed, which we probably never will completely understand. Nevertheless, the individual acceleration created by each living unit is a perfectly proved fact!!

  • Besides these two examples, countless are the natural units in the universe, which continuously work without any energy input! We should reserve the Law of Energy Conservation for the engineers, who are obliged to proceed with a kind of "energy-comptability" in order to evaluate their projects.

  • Our modern science and technology is completely brainwashed by the concept of energy. The energy-hungry society recognises only these scientific efforts which result in some kind of materialistic profits. We are living in a scientific and technological illusion, and we do not realise that we continuously violate the living microcosm. The result is a gradual deterioration of the human, animal and vegetal life!!

09 |THE RADIATIONS

Introduction

  • As I already mentioned in Chapter 03, I classify as radiations those phenomena which are created by the following two elements.

    1. The subatomic fragments 0 ejected by the living heavy atom 0.

    2. A special kind of magnetic pattern created by the unstable secondary free atoms -10. It has the form of a tube, and in my writings, I call it "discharging tube" or "dispersing tube". Sometimes, I use the sign -1.

  • In this chapter, I give more details of the different harmless and harmful radiations.

  • First of all, I must clarify a possible misunderstanding in the scientific terminology.

  • Modern Physics states that the sun is radiating heat energy, or that heat energy is transferred from a hot body to a cold body by radiation. Such statements misuse the concept and the word "energy". Energy was introduced by human science to measure and evaluate the work done by the different units of the universe. It is a measuring unit like metre, kilogramme, second, etc. It would be ridiculous to say that a metre jumps from one body to another body, or that a second walks on the streets.

  • The measuring unit of energy is very useful in engineering. Explaining Nature's mechanism with a kind of energy entity creates a huge confusion in natural sciences.

The Big Family of Radiations

  • It was shown that the atom is composed of individual living units, just as our body is composed of individual living cells. It is logical to say that the atom (as a whole) is a living entity.

  • Considering our living space, the atom +1, we know that some tiny interstellar dust particles or some light air molecules are continuously leaving the gravitational field of the earth. In return, we continuously get some particles from outer space. This is a natural and normal exchange procedure, similar to the transpiration of a human body.

  • It would be strange if giant pieces of rocks would continuously be ejected from the earth, and fly out from the gravitational field of +1. In this case, our solar system atom +1 would become "radioactive". We have evidence that such things happen in the universe, because meteorites are flying in the galaxy. Thus, if the entire sun fell apart and scatter in the galaxy, then we would be involved in a "fission" reaction, as interpreted within the solar system +2.

  • Every piece of matter in the n (big or little) is called n. We can generalise and say that n-s are continuously loitering in the interatomic zones between the n-s. According to our first hypothesis, we can state that 0 particles are continuously loitering in the interatomic spaces between the 0-s. The flying 0 particles are behind all radiation phenomena.

  • Earlier, we said that the 0 represents a sun for the free atom -10. If a 0 moves along the unstable -10-s, then a series of -1 loops are created, as shown in Figure 09-01. This pattern is the easiest way to stabilise the unstable -10-s. It looks like a straight tube, which allows a free passage for the 0. We can even demonstrate that this tube accelerates the 0 by pushing it with a real force. A marvellous Nature-created mechanism which endeavours to remove the dead atomic particles from their sources. (Nature invented the particle accelerator before humankind!!)

  • The tube composed of -10 pattern, as shown in Figure 09-01, will be called "discharging tube". It is similar to another pattern (called magnetic field) created around a conductor carrying electric current, as shown in Figure 09-02. According to the Living Atom Theory, the phenomenon, which we call "electric current", is the activity of the atoms 0 trying to discharge some dangerous tensions in their gravitational field.

  • The discharging tubes or dispersing tubes, shown in Figure 09-01 and Figure 09-02, are really magnetic fields. We can demonstrate it by putting them in another magnetic field, between the north () and south () poles of a magnet, as shown in Figure 09-03. The magnetic force lines on the left of the discharging tubes are unstable (). The lines try to concentrate on the right side of the discharging tube, and a force pushes the tube as shown. (This is the basic principle of the electric motors.)

  • However, there is an important difference between the dimensions. The diameter of a discharging tube loop around an electrical conductor, shown in Figure 09-02, can be expressed in centimetres or even in metres. We can measure the strength of the field with a compass or a magnetometer. On the other hand, the radiation discharging tube loop, shown in Figure 09-01, has a diameter of about 10-14 metre. This is very little. It is impossible to measure this magnetic field with our instruments.

  • In the case of an important radiation, we have to consider several billions of discharging tubes, side by side, pointing in the same direction. Picture about 1022 discharging tubes passing through a surface of 1 millimetre2.

  • We also have to consider that a discharging tube has a polarity. The arrows can form a loop like or like when viewed from the same point. This characteristic explains to us why in electricity, we experience positive and negative tensions, or in magnetism, there are north and south poles. It is up to us to choose which pattern we call or . According to the Living Atom Theory, electricity and magnetism are the same phenomena. Each can be explained with the different pattern built up of the unstable -10-s.

  • Sometimes, the majority within a cluster of discharging tubes is composed of tubes with the same polarity. In this case, the radiation can be deviated by a magnetic or an electrostatic field, like the alpha and beta rays. Sometimes, clusters have the same number of different type discharging tubes ( & ). Then, the radiation can not be deviated, like the gamma rays and X rays.

  • The introduction of the discharging tubes is one of the most valuable results of the Living Atom Theory.

  • Radiation is composed of two basic elements.

    1. Subatomic particle 0 ejected from a living atom 0.

    2. Discharging tube created by unstable -10-s.

  • In addition, a radiation can also have a vibrating characteristic. As a matter of fact, the 0-s are ejected from rotating units 0 and 0. Suppose that the 0, which ejects, is rotating 1015 times/second. Then, the whole discharging tube will vibrate with a frequency of 1015 hertz.

  • In order to classify the different radiations, we have to consider three factors.

    1. Effects caused by 0-s.

    2. Effects caused by the discharging tubes.

    3. Effects caused by the frequency of vibration.

  • Each factor can be more or less important in the different radiations.

  • In addition, we can classify the radiations in the following two groups.

    1. Harmless radiations.

    2. Harmful radiations.

The Harmless Radiations

  • Nature's beauty appears in its infinite variety. There are not two eggs, two potatoes, or two 0-s exactly the same. Of course, there are similarities, which allow for the chemical science to classify the matter in about 100 known elements.

  • The same comment applies to all radiations. Their variety is almost infinite. We can compare them with mushrooms. Some are completely harmless, even useful, while others are a little bit dangerous, and some are lethal.

  • A lot depends on the importance of the 0-s. According to our first hypothesis, an observer on a 0 would experience the same phenomena as we do on our +1. He/She would see that matter 0 has three forms: gaseous, liquid and solid. If some gaseous 0 molecules are ejected from the 0, then the resulting radiation is generally harmless, especially if it is a question of natural radiation. In the case of human-invented radiations, we should be more careful, as we will see soon. Here are some typical examples of low-level, natural, harmless radiations.

  • The best known is the phenomenon we call "cosmic ray". This is a marvellous Nature-created discharging tube pattern. The tubes are generally directed towards the earth's centre. Of course, the tubes carry some unimportant 0-s. They are always loitering in the interatomic zones between the 0-s and 00-s.

  • Today's science tries to explain the cosmic rays with a very fragile hypothesis. Scientists are looking for different kinds of subatomic particles coming from outer space. They pass the cosmic rays through a cloud chamber (like the Wilson chamber), and they deviate them with a strong magnetic field. Then, they measure the deviated trajectory, and they think that they can calculate the velocity, the mass value, and the energy of the particle. This is a gross error. The magnetic field deviates the discharging tubes, as shown in Figure 09-03. Furthermore, the ionisation chamber or the Geiger counter measures the strength of the tubes. It is true that the particle 0 creates the discharging tube, but its importance depends on several factors. We do not have instruments to measure the importance of the particles 0. They are the discharging tubes which create electrical tensions in some atoms 0 and some molecules. (In other words, they "ionise".) The last rules are valid for all kinds of radiations.

  • Measuring the radiation flux (power) of the cosmic ray with a sensitive Geiger counter, we find it to be about 0.01 milliroentgen/hour (on the earth's surface). Remember that even 7.5 milliroentgen/hour of continuous exposure to X rays (750 times stronger) is considered to be harmless by doctors. The argument often used by pro-nuclear activists (who want to classify the cosmic rays as dangerous radiations) shows a great deal of ignorance.

  • One might wonder why Nature would have this regular discharge tube pattern around the earth's globe. Everything has a logical purpose in Nature's scheme. The Living Atom Theory gives the answer to this question. The cosmic ray's discharging tubes cross the magnetic field of the earth. (We know that the earth acts as a huge permanent magnet.) This results in a configuration, as shown in Figure 09-03. A continuous force and torque is created which keeps the earth rotating!! This is a marvellous Nature-created electric motor.

  • I was able to construct a model mechanism which rotates similarly to the earth. This is a very interesting experiment and a strong support for the Living Atom Theory. (For more details, see the text "The Living Planet Earth".)

  • An interesting aspect of this natural electric motor is that the strength of the discharging tubes can vary in different heights of the atmosphere. Consequently, some layers of the atmosphere can rotate even faster than the globe does. (This fact was proved.) We also have evidences that the atmosphere of the planet Venus rotates in the opposite direction to the globe itself. This planet has a different "cosmic ray" pattern from that of the earth.

  • The presently accepted theory tries to explain the earth's rotation with its inertia by assuming that the globe rotates in a perfectly empty space. If we want to explain the movements of the atmosphere, then this theory is a complete failure!! We can resume by saying that the cosmic ray is not only harmless but also very useful.

  • Remember that the atom 0 is alive, and it has a sound natural "transpiration" (like another units of our fauna) by ejecting unimportant 0 particles from its "body". Consequently, everything around us radiates (like water, soil, air, etc.). We are living in a sea of harmless radiations.

  • However, we should admit that there are some rare unsound 0-s which dismantle completely some of their 0-s, and eject relatively huge 0 particles. These "crazy" 0-s are generally embedded in heavy minerals, and the sound 0-s around them stop the dangerous 0-s. There are some very rare exceptions to this rule. In some places on the earth, the health of the population is jeopardised by important unshielded 0-s.

  • Especially interesting are the harmless natural radiations coming from living units of our fauna (like humans and animals). Notice that we are composed of a bunch of radiating 0-s. The cells of the brain and the eyes are the best radiating elements. They create discharging tubes which can go relatively far. These tubes are endowed with a vibration of certain frequency. Another 0 (far away) can react to the vibration, and it is inspired to emit radiations of the same frequency. Using the scientific terminology, we say that most of the radiations are "reflected". The whole phenomenon works like a perfect natural "radar" system. This can be a subconscious method of telecommunication between two people. Note that the radar system of a human is rather imperfect. Only a very few people can use the power of their radiations (like in hypnosis). Meanwhile, the radar system of some animals is extremely perfect (like in some birds and fish). This system can be used not only for intercommunication between the same living species. The radiation is answered (reflected) also by inanimate matter, because matter is composed of 0-s, too. Fish are oriented by a radiation type radar system even in places where light does not exist.

  • Other useful harmless radiations are those which vibrate with precise and constant frequency. Some atoms 0 which compose substances like ammonium, hydrogen, cesium, radiate with very constant frequency. We are able to measure this frequency, and we state that 1 second is just the time during which a cesium atom's radiation vibrates 9192631770 times.

The Human-Invented Radiations

  • We have several human-invented radiations with unimportant 0 particles, which means that they are relatively harmless. Human technology found some methods to create powerful discharging tubes with just a few unimportant 0-s. The best example is an "electronic" circuit created inside a vacuum tube, as shown in Figure 09-04. A hot cathode () ejects some 0-s, and the discharging tubes () are reinforced by a high positive tension in the anode (). We can demonstrate that if the discharging tube has a polarity like , then the same kind of loop pattern is created inside a positively charged body like the anode . These loops are composed of unstable -10-s being at the boundary of the 0's gravitational field. (Remember that there are unstable -10-s also inside the 0. They create patterns which explain the mystery of electrical tensions and "charges".) The positive pattern in the anode reinforces the stability of the discharging tubes .

  • The pattern of Figure 09-04 introduces some interesting rules.

    1. The electric and electronic circuit can be completely explained by the comportment of the discharging tubes. We do not have to suppose flying or travelling electrons along the circuit. This is a very far-reaching statement, and changes the presently-accepted electric theory. The discharging tubes in Figure 09-04 do not stop at the anode (). They continue in another form encircling the electric conductor which we call "Magnetic field caused by electric current". The whole discharging tube pattern vibrates with a frequency around 1013 hertz. The Living Atom Theory states that the sun of the 0, the 0, has a powerful "temperature" organ with a sensor which is synchronised to this frequency. Each time something inside the 0 vibrates with the frequency of ~1013 hertz, the 0 organ reacts, and its activity appears to us as a rise in temperature. We say that an electric current heats the conductor. Of course, inside the vacuum tube, the heating effect is minimised because there are just a few 0-s in the vacuum.

    2. The formation of a discharging tube pattern is much easier in the vacuum. The vacuum is composed mostly of 00-s whose dimension is about 1000 times as small as the dimension of the 0. Consequently, in a vacuum, there are much more unstable -10-s in the borders of the 00-s because the borderlines are longer. If a discharging tube arrives at a bunch of concentrated 0-s, then the pattern can change, or sometimes it can disappear completely because unstable -10-s found a better possibility to assure their stability. An excellent example is the cathode ray tube (video tube of the TV), as shown in Figure 09-05. This is a vacuum tube, too. We see that some discharging tubes () cross the hole () of the anode (), and stop at the glass screen (). This screen is composed of concentrated 0-s. In the "labyrinth" of those 0-s, the unstable -10-s find a more favourable position for their stability than in the discharging tubes. In the meantime, the 0 particles, carried by the discharging tubes, are dispersed in the interatomic zones between the 0-s. Most of them are "accepted" by the 0-s, and are "falling" down on the globes 0 and 0. (As interstellar dust is continuously falling down on our globe +1.)

  • Suppose now that some 0-s find their way through the atoms 0 of the screen , and continue to move in the air. Some very low level radiations will be created outside the video screen, and we have evidences of this fact. The 0-s of the air molecules will act as a secondary screen, and the radiation disappears completely. We say that this kind of radiation is not penetrant at all. Meanwhile, it is not recommended to watch a video screen from too close a range.

  • It is impossible to explain the cathode ray phenomenon with the flying electrons. If the 0-s of the screen would accept the flying electrons, then the glass should change fast into another matter. If the electrons would continue to travel outside the screen, then the people watching TV would be killed in a short time. The flying electron theory is a complete paradox!!

  • Human technology is able to create stable discharging tubes not only in the vacuum but also in the atmosphere. A special sheet will be added to this text, as shown in Figure AA-01, showing an enlarged section of our atmosphere. It is an elastic sea-like structure, composed of 0-s and 00-s, where the 00-s are in big majority, which allows the formation of strong discharging tubes. The 0-s, creating these tubes, are slightly "heavier" than those in the "electronic" circuits, but they are still considered to be harmless. Gadgets, using artificial magnetic and electric fields, concentrate and reinforce those discharging tubes.

  • We can distinguish between two groups of these human-invented radiations.

    1. Radiations with frequency values slightly lower than 1013 hertz. For those, we gave the name "Microwaves".

    2. Radiations with frequency values slightly higher than 1013 hertz. They are called "Laser beams".

  • The device, which generates microwaves (often called magnetron), creates vibrations in the range of 1010 to 1011 hertz. Of course, it creates the necessary 0-s, too. The value of frequency is very important in the work of microwave ovens. This frequency is close to the critical frequency of 1013 hertz, and the 0 temperature organ of some atoms react to this frequency, which appears as the rise in temperature. Some substances (mostly those with water contents) are heated up fast. The 0-s penetrate deeply into the substances (foods) via the interatomic zones between the 0-s, and the discharging tubes transfer the vibrations to the different atoms 0.

  • The argument, saying that (in the microwave oven) the kinetic energy of the vibration is transformed into heat energy, is very poor. We can easily demonstrate that the kinetic energy can not be instantaneously changed into heat energy because this transformation is a very complicated procedure. We can even make several experiments proving this fact.

  • The microwave radiation can also be used in telecommunications. This time, the most important element is the concentrated discharging tube. It goes far in the air and in a straight line. The radiation can be "oriented", which is a big advantage because the signal can not be easily disturbed by parasite vibrations. Remember that the vibration of the discharging tube can sometimes be "answered" by agglomerations of 0-s being far away. We can use the "reflected" radiations to construct a device which we call "radar".

  • The laser radiation uses higher frequency vibrations (in the order of 1014 hertz). This happens to be also the range of light signal frequencies. (Visible light is between 4 x 1014 and 8 x 1014 hertz.) The Living Atom Theory states that the light signal is created by the activities of some agitated living units on the surface of the globes 0 (light organ). The frequency of the light signal is determined by the rotation of the 0. The signal is transferred in all directions of the space by the perfectly elastic (living) media composed of free atoms -10 (stable and unstable -10-s). If, at the same time, 0 particles are ejected from the 0 with the same cadence, a radiation which we call laser beam will result. It is a mistake to classify the laser beam as the light phenomena. (This mistake is made by the presently accepted scientific theory.) According to the Living Atom Theory, the light is just a by-product of the laser beam. As a matter of fact, the ejection of those laser beams creating 0-s is an unusual activity agitating the life on the 0-s which is necessary to create a light source.

  • In the laser beam, the principal "rôle" is played by the discharging tubes. The effect of the 0-s and of the vibration is quasi negligible. We can concentrate the cluster of discharging tubes much more precisely than those of the microwaves. Such a concentrated discharging tube can have a devastating effect on some molecules. (An energy-indoctrinated scientist will say that we can transfer a huge quantity of energy with the laser beam. He/She will accept this fact as a proof that light is a form of energy. He/She is wrong.)

  • Previously, I said that we have to be careful with human-invented radiations. Let us see why.

  • We just saw that a concentrated discharging tube cluster can be harmful for the living cells. It acts exactly like a strong electric current. The effect of the discharging tube is instantaneous. It is a general rule that the short-term effect of a radiation is caused by the discharging tubes, and the long-term effect is caused by the 0-s.

  • What about those artificially created 0-s? They can not eternally loiter in the interatomic zones between the 0-s and 00-s. Sooner or later, they will be accepted by some sound atoms, and they will be deposited on the surfaces of globes 0, 00 and 0. This means that slowly but inevitably, the atom will be soiled. We do not know how long it would take before the atom will be so "dirty" that it could do no more work. Maybe several thousand or several million years. But one thing is sure. The vitality of the atoms 0 and 00 decreases continually.

  • Here is one example. If somebody exaggerates by eating continuously food prepared in microwave oven, then he/she will be nourished by food composed of atoms soiled with 0-s. This could have a side effect which will be demonstrated only after many years of experiences. Note that it took several hundred years of experiences until we concluded that cigarette smoking is dangerous.

  • The alarming fact is that the number of electric and electronic gadgets (which create continuously 0-s) is increasing vertiginously. It is true that human technology invented a lot of interesting and useful things, but we should handle them like alcoholic beverages. We should use them with moderation!

  • In my opinion, modern science and technology can be compared to a sophisticated vehicle, which humankind built to serve its commodity. But, until now, we forgot to install the brake on this vehicle which is continuously accelerating. The Living Atom Theory will teach us how to construct this braking system.

The Harmful Radiations

  • Each time a bunch of atoms 0 eject important solid type 0-s, a harmful radiation results.

  • The first typical example is the X ray, which is somewhere on the borderline between the harmless and harmful radiations. A concentrated "gamma" radiation (created by human-invented radioactive elements) is similar to the X rays. To understand how X rays work, it is handy to consider an imaginary situation. Let us suppose that we have two very powerful guns on the earth's surface. One in the U.S.A. and another somewhere in China. They shoot regularly 10 kilogramme bullets with such a velocity that the bullet (made of heat-resistant metal) goes out of the gravitational field of the earth and of the sun. An imaginary living unit in the +2 solar system would experience X ray radiation bearing +1 particles and discharging tubes composed of unstable free atoms 00. This discharging tube will vibrate with a frequency of 2 x 0.125 x 10-4 hertz. (Note that 0.125 x 10-4 hertz is the frequency value of the earth's rotation.)

  • In the X rays, the 0-s are solid bullets travelling with relatively high velocity. They traverse easily some not too dense 0 agglomerations (like human tissue or glass), by finding their way through the interatomic zones. The penetrating power of a radiation depends on the quality of the 0-s. Once a 0 traverses a human body, it will continue its way in the air. Of course, another discharging tube will be created around the 0-s. This "secondary" radiation then arrives at a photographic film. It is important to know that it is not the 0 which acts on the film, but the discharging tube. It creates electrical tensions in some silver-bearing molecules which results in chemical reactions. Similarly, if we measure the power of the X ray with a Geiger counter, then we measure the importance of the discharging tubes. Only they can create electric tensions which can be amplified and observed. This is a tricky situation. We can predict the short-time effect of the discharging tubes by measurements, but the long-term effect of the 0-s can just be guessed to suit some medical statistics.

  • During an X ray examination, not all the 0-s traverse the body. Some of them are "accepted" by the 0-s of our body. In other words, the gravitational field of the 0 pulls the 0 to a 0 or a 0. By traversing a bone, more 0-s will be "trapped" than by traversing a soft tissue. The secondary radiation behind a bone structure is weaker. Otherwise, we could not get clear X ray pictures. During each X ray dose, some 0-s of our body get soiled by "solid" 0 bullets. The crucial question is: How long would it take before the 0 will be "saturated" with the 0 dirt and can do no more work? We never know what the "pollution" degree of our 0-s is. The reader can understand now why I said that each X ray examination is like a Russian Roulette.

  • Let us continue with our imaginary experiment. Suppose that our earth ejects into the galaxy every minute a mass like the entire Mount Everest. The imaginary observer in the solar system +2 will perceive that our solar atom +1 became strongly radioactive. He/She will also notice that (in a limited time) the entire earth is dismantled, and the +1 changed its "chemical" characteristic.

  • We see that there can be a huge difference between 0-s and another 0-s. Furthermore, we have solid, liquid and gaseous 0-s, and they can be ejected with different velocities and in different cadences. Because of these variable factors, we can say that the variety of radioactive radiations is infinite. If we consider just three kinds of radioactive decays (alpha, beta and gamma-photon particles), then it is a very poor classification.

  • Of course, in Nature, there are some strongly radioactive 0-s, too. We could call them "sick atoms". Every living group has some sick species. This is part of life. Nature has tremendous regulating power to keep the sick 0-s alive and to heal them. The life of the atoms +1, 0, -1, etc. seems to be much more important than the life of a human being. They are put in an environment (a kind of natural "hospital"), where they can slowly be healed by transforming themselves into a more stable state.

  • Nuclear scientists are proud because modern advanced technology is able to create radioactive "isotopes" from every known chemical element. What a shame!! This is like we would be proud to always create more and more mentally retarded children. The human body is built up of living organs, the organs of living cells, and the cells of living atoms. To build a cell, a big variety of 0-s are required. Each 0 has its precise duty to fulfill in this marvellous nature-created "organisation". If some of these 0-s are sick or become sick (i.e., strongly radioactive), then they will sooner or later change their characteristic (this can take several minutes or several years), because some 0-s are completely dismantled. (Note that the chemical characteristic of a 0 depends on the number of 0-s.) The work of the atom and of the entire cell will no longer be done properly. Sometimes, the faulty cell is part of a vital organ. Then, the entire human body is in trouble which ends up in a fatal disease.

  • Let us give an example. Suppose that in a factory, a group of well-trained mechanics builds a sophisticated engine. If, one day, the mechanics were replaced by clowns, the whole factory would be in trouble.

  • When a young human life grows up, the cells take the necessary 0-s from our environment (air, water, soil, plants, different foods, etc.). If these elements contain a considerable percentage of strongly radioactive 0-s, then the growing cells have no more choice but to accept sick atoms. In this condition, the human race, together with big animals, has no more chance to survive. Of course, some microbes will still survive because they need less 0-s, and they have a chance to choose among the sound ones.

  • Crazy human ambition together with ignorance guided modern science to separate and collect some populations of sick atoms. The first result was a variety of strong radioactive radiations together with continuous dismantling of some 0-s (like in Radium). When a 0 disappears completely from the gravitational field of a 0, a huge quantity of stable -10-s (around the 0-s) become unstable. They must seek a new stable position, and their activity creates an important shock to the gravitational field of the 0. The temperature organ of the sun 0 reacts to this shock which appears to us as a rise in temperature. Thus, the Living Atom Theory explains why a sick atom concentration (like Radium) creates continuously "heat energy".

  • The heat energy created by Radium was not enough for the energy-hungry human ambition. The science was seeking for another sick 0-s which could work more "efficiently". Research people found some minerals containing a metal element called Uranium. This is an amazing chemical element containing a lot of very stable 0-s (238) and a few crazy sick 0-s (235). There are about 140 238 atoms for 1 235 atom. The sick 235 atom ejects continuously huge 0 particles. (We should imagine that these 0 particles are in the range of 10-18 metre.) The scientific books use the name "neutron" for these 0-s.

  • It should be noted that the concept of neutron is not the same as the concept of these 0-s. The present atomic theory assumes that the atom is composed of packages of electric charges. The neutron is a package without electric charge. The proton is a package of positive charges, and the electron is a package of negative charges. Thus, the planet 0 of the Living Atom Theory is not exactly the same as the electron! For the 0, ejected by the sick 235 atom, I would rather like to use the name "deadly 0" instead of "neutron".

  • The atomic research and industry manipulates the Uranium element by "enriching" it with sick atoms. This is a real hunt, modern scientific "safari", designed to trap some 0-s and exploit their "energy". Normally, even these deadly 0-s are harmless for the very stable 238 atoms. They are removed relatively far from their sources by the discharging tubes, and (sooner or later) they are accepted by some stable 0-s without causing any damage. But, if we concentrate the "crazy" 235 atoms, and we manage to trick the deadly 0-s by slowing them down, then our diabolical trap works. The deadly 0 falls down upon the surface of the sun 0 of another unstable 235 atom. This event is too much to take for this sick 0. The "sun" 0 is split into pieces. The result is a violent instantaneous death of the entire atom 0. This is a very tragic incident within the atomic world.

  • The killing of the first 0 (made in 1939 by Otto Hahn), marked a turning point in the history of science. It is also the most unfortunate event in the history of humankind. Until then, every human-invented invention was just an imperfect imitation of some natural phenomenon. In our living space (on the surface of the earth), we can not find a natural phenomenon where the life of the 0 is jeopardised. In 1939, we infringed on the most basic law of Nature. We must absolutely stop all killings of 0-s if we do not want to be severely punished.

  • At this point, we need an explanation. There is today a fragile theory supposing that the sun's heat is created by a kind of hypothetical atomic reaction which we call "fusion". The Living Atom Theory states that every hypothesis which deals in detail with the composition of celestial units is somewhere in the domain of science fiction. This theory can explain the sun's high temperature in a more logical way, but I sincerely admit that this is a hypothesis, too. We have every right to play around with these hypotheses, as such a practice is very common in science fiction. Nevertheless, it is ridiculous that some serious, well-known scientists take them for granted. One of them once wrote to me "It was perfectly proved with spectroscopy that the sun and the stars are composed of the same chemical elements, the same atoms as those of the earth". Once again, I affirm that a perfect proof could be obtained only if we would be on the surface of the sun or on the surface of another star in question. The Living Atom Theory demonstrates that, in such distances, the spectroscopy gives us just illusive observations, which prove nothing. The theory also states that in the universe, there are no two 0-s exactly the same. Nature works this way.

  • Let us see what happens if a 235 atom is killed. Sometimes, we call it "fission reaction". At once, a tremendous quantity of -10-s become unstable as a result of losing their sun. Their instantaneous reaction creates extremely high temperatures in the surrounding atoms. This is the real cause of the atomic energy. We have to understand the huge difference between the heat created during a fission reaction and the heat created by the radioactive decay of Radium, which is caused only by the -10-s surrounding the atomic planet 0.

  • I would like to give a slightly different explanation, too, for those who are more familiar with the energy-based terminology. The gravitational field of an atom 0 is similar to a powerful (living) spring system, which is tied up to the sun 0 by imaginary ropes. If the 0 is destroyed, then the ropes are cut, and the potential energy of the spring becomes free and can be used by human technology. Even this explanation is more logical than Einstein's

= x 2

equation.

  • The atomic energy becomes useful only with the collaboration of the surrounding sound atoms. Their reaction is a natural activity in order to save their lives. The creation of heat energy is the positive effect of the 0 killing.

  • Let us see now the negative effects. It is assumed that the 235 atom has about 92 planets 0. Without their 0, they try to find a new place inside a sound living atom 0. Sometimes, this transplant works. The 0 which accepts them then changes its chemical characteristic, and becomes an unstable, strongly radioactive "sick" atom. For example, if two 0-s are transplanted into a stable 238 atom, then we get a dangerously radioactive element called Plutonium. If the transplant does not work, then the 0 is split into pieces, increasing the number of deadly 0-s ejected into the interatomic zones.

  • The most dangerous effect comes from the pieces created by the exploded sun 0. Referring to the 0-s created by the 0-s as the "deadly 0-s", we can call those created by the exploded 0 as "super-deadly 0-s". To understand this, we should just compare the mass of the sun with the mass of the earth. At this point, we can see that the presently accepted "neutron" hypothesis is very poor. There are huge differences among neutrons. The Living Atom Theory points out that the variety of the deadly 0-s is infinite.

  • With such a quantity and quality of deadly and super-deadly 0-s, it is practically impossible to kill just one 235 atom. During a fission reaction, a real mass killing occurs. The number of super-deadly 0-s increases in an avalanche fashion (this is sometimes called "chain reaction"). We know some procedures which "moderate" the killing effect. If we do not moderate it, then a tremendous explosion occurs.

  • Each explosion (even a non-atomic explosion) is a kind of rescue operation organised by Nature. It tries to scatter the dangerous units into the space in order to save the life of the 0-s.

  • During a fission reaction, a tremendous quantity of super-deadly 0-s are created. Each of them must eventually be accepted by a healthy atom. The 0 which accepts such a 0 becomes a strongly radioactive "sick" atom. This is the most devastating effect of the nuclear technology. Let us see why.

Shielding Against Harmful Radiations

  • Scientists working for the nuclear industry have an interesting argument. They say that, although atomic radiations are dangerous, we have efficient shielding methods against them. This is partly true, but let us see the shielding problem from the perspective of the Living Atom Theory.

  • The 0-s are different, and they have different characteristics. Some of them are able to accept several important 0-s without risking their lives. They are the garbage-bag type atoms of the universe. Thus, the atoms in a lead plate accept practically 100% of the 0-s coming from an X ray or gamma ray radiation. Generally, all the heavy metals are good shielding materials against X rays and gamma rays. Another good shielding material is a thick concrete wall in which metal molecules are embedded. This is a "garbage-bag" even for the deadly 0-s. Unfortunately, the hydrogen atom (component of water) is also a good "garbage-bag". (This is rather tragic, since by polluting our hydrogen atoms, we are soiling the most basic element of our life.)

  • The crucial question is: How long will it take before the garbage-bags are full? We do not yet know. One thing is certain. They are gradually filling up. We only have about 40 years of experiences with our shielding materials, and this is not enough. Suppose that the "garbage bag" is adequate for 60 years. Then, in less than 20 years, most of the working nuclear reactors will experience the so-called "China syndrome".

  • We have several signs showing that this prediction can be true. Structural materials continuously irradiated by atomic radiations are getting fast "tired", and they are demolished in a relatively short time. The pipes, tanks and pumps carrying radioactive fluids are in trouble. Most of the nuclear engineers predict that a nuclear reactor is not safe after 50 years of service. After that, the whole structure has to be dismantled, changed, or abandoned (this is the cheapest solution). What an economical disaster!!

  • In some cases, nuclear wastes are put in steel containers (shields), and are dumped from ships into the deep ocean. It is estimated that nuclear wastes eject super-deadly 0-s for about 50000 years! Yet, the shielding structure will be completely corroded and destroyed after about 50 years. During the remaining 49950 years, dangerous radioactive atoms will be created at the bottom of the ocean, and they will be scattered and distributed all over the world.

  • Nature has an amazingly efficient system which scatters and distributes equally all the deadly 0-s and the dangerous radioactive 0-s. Different methods are used.

    1. The first method is the explosion as it was explained previously. Nature uses this method as the last resort in the case of imminent danger.

    2. The radiation is the most efficient scattering method of Nature, in order to remove dangerous 0 particles. If I had to define the phenomenon of radiation, then I would use the sentence above. Of course, the removal job is done by the discharging tubes.

    3. Very efficient scattering work is done by the continuously moving water and air molecules. A water molecule (by evaporating and condensing) can travel huge distances. A molecule in Vancouver (Canada) one day, can, in a few weeks, easily be in Calcutta (India). This means that, if an atomic-powered satellite falls in the Indian Ocean today, after a few short weeks, then it can easily cause a bone cancer in a child living in Vancouver.

Air and gas-molecules are scattered even more easily. The English mathematician Sir James Jeans figured out that in the lungs of each of us, there are about five molecules from the last breath of Julius Caesar. This "picturesque" example indicates that radioactive gases (like Xenon, Krypton, Radon, Tritium, etc.), created in huge quantities by atomic explosions or nuclear reactor incidents, make their devastating work equally all around the world.

    1. Finally, we should not forget the scattering work done by animals. They eat radioactive food, and by migrating, they scatter radioactivity everywhere.

  • We just can not stop the scattering work of nature! Shielding just delays the human-invented harmful radiations, but does not stop them. This is similar to heat insulation which just retards the equalisation of temperatures, but does not stop it.

Conclusion

  • What should we do to avoid the final disaster? First of all, the public should understand how radiations work. Such warnings should be published and distributed all around the world. The solution will then become political, as pressure will be on the legislators to solve the problem.

  • Today, most of the human population is still ignorant of the devastating effect of the nuclear technology, although a large proportion of the population fears nuclear war. Peace organisations demonstrating against the nuclear arms race are without any chance of success because they attack the wrong part of the problem.

  • We should not waste energy by trying to achieve peace. War has always been, and will always be, as long as there are at least two human beings left. One part of the population is warrior-like and wants to fight. Let them fight with boxing gloves, with hockey sticks, with swords and even with guns.

  • An old Latin proverb says "Si vis pacem para bellum" (If you want peace, then prepare for war). It seems that President Reagan's administration, together with the leaders of the Soviet Union, follow this proverb. Maybe they are partly right.

  • The basic goal of the war, and the driving force behind it, is the hope in victory and in the resultant profit. We must show the warriors that a nuclear war is senseless. It will mark the end of all victories and profits. All should realise that a nuclear bomb dropped on Moscow has the same devastating effect in the U.S.A. as in the U.S.S.R. and all around the world.

  • This is the warning message of the Living Atom Theory.

10 |ANOTHER LOOK AT ELECTRICITY

Introduction

  • What is electricity? This well-known phenomenon has yet to be satisfactorily defined by the physicists. As I already mentioned, it is wrong to say that electricity is a form of energy, since such kind of energy does not exist in nature.

  • Despite the lack of understanding of this phenomenon, there are innumerable applications of it that humans have discovered. Because they are so numerous, electrical phenomena are generally categorised as electrostatics, electrodynamics, electromagnetism, electronics, microelectronics, electrochemistry, etc.

  • The Living Atom Theory suggests a simple and unifying way of defining the electric phenomenon: Electricity is a self-defence action of the living heavy atom 0 to eliminate some dangerous tensions (stresses) inside the atomic structure.

  • To visualise this atom 0, let us look at Figure 10-01. We have the sun of the atom (nucleus) and the planetary units 0. These are the "intelligent" living gyroscopes, and they are embedded in an elastic gravitational field which is composed of secondary free atoms -10. I already explained the different patterns created by the -10-s in Chapter 03. Here, I am adding that the gravitational field also assures the revolution (orbital motion) of the planets 0 around the atomic sun. An electric tension can be caused by the deviation of the 0 gyroscope's axis. This "living" gyroscope has a powerful orientation organ 0b which tries to orient the axis in the most favourable position in order to assure a fast rotation. In a perfectly neutral position, the 0 axis would be perpendicular to the plan of its orbit. This would be an ideal situation which does not exist in Nature. This means that each 0 atom always has a kind of electric tension. However, we can only observe those which are of sufficient magnitude to be recorded by our instruments.

Remark: It is interesting to compare the planetary units 0 with the planets +1 in our solar system +1. We know that the axis of our planet earth is also slightly deviated. (Without this deviation, we would not experience the four seasons.) We could also imagine that a cosmic giant could interpret the deviation of the earth as a kind of electric tension. In my opinion, such little deviation does not translate into a serious "electric" phenomenon in a higher level atom +2. A +2 giant would likely consider our solar system +1 to be electrically neutral.

  • The planetary units 0 would have to deviate much more radically in order to create for us appreciable electrical phenomena. The deviation can even change in each point of their orbit. So, it can happen that the axis are continuously directed in the same direction in the space.

  • The excessive 0 deviation can jeopardise the stability of the atom 0. For this reason, Nature has created a marvellous mechanism which tries to eliminate any excessive deviations and stresses in the gravitational field of the atom 0. The unstable secondary free atoms -10 create stabilising loops which encircle the 0 axis. In my writings, I call them polarisation loops, with the sign -1. To represent the direction of the 0 axis, I use the sign .

  • Figure 10-02 shows that the direction of the arrow is determined by the direction of the polarisation loop.

  • We know that the heavy atom 0 is present in the space of the +1, and forms different kinds of "confederations" with other 0. These confederations are called molecules. Each molecule is completely surrounded by free atoms 00. Even a rigid body is just a kind of "lattice" constituted by molecules and separated by 00-s. Thus, we should analyse separately the electrical behaviour of each molecule. This offers huge possibilities for researchers, as each individual molecule acts differently if it is electrically polarised.

Remark: We can omit the notion of electrical charge.

Electric Technology

  • According to present scientific knowledge, we have discovered more than 9000 different organic and inorganic compounds, which means more than 9000 different molecules. It would appear that humans will forever be able to continue inventing new electrical gadgets, especially in the field of microelectronics.

  • A molecule can be polarised in two different ways, as shown in Figure 10-03.

  • On the left, the 0 axes are deviated in such a way that the arrows point in the direction of 00-s. We call this positive () polarisation. On the right, the arrows are pointed in the direction of 0-s. We call this negative () polarisation. It is our choice to call either one positive or negative. Even more attractive is to use the symbol for positive, and the symbol for negative polarisation. We already know that the direction of the arrow determines the direction of the polarisation loops, or .

  • In Chapter 03, I explained the forces which attract a molecule to a molecule. These are created by the -20 free atoms, and the -2 loops are doing the work.

  • When the distance between a and a molecule diminishes, the outer unstable -10 free atoms (in the 00 space) follow the direction of the patterns, and a powerful discharging tube pattern is created. This means an instantaneous elimination (discharge) of the electric tension, as shown in Figure 10-04.

  • The importance and strength of the polarisation patterns also indicates the value of tension. We can measure it with an instrument (voltmeter), but then we are in effect measuring the average tension value in a huge number of molecules.

  • In Physics, the value of tension is generally indicated by the letter . The new electrical term of capacity was introduced, and was represented by the letter . The capacity value is proportional to the number of deviated planetary units 0.

  • Engineers can calculate the effort (work) necessary to give a tension for a body of capacity with the formula

(1/2) x x 2

which can be expressed with the measuring unit called energy. Let us call it input energy (in). Sooner or later, the tension of the molecules is discharged because this is a natural tendency. But we can easily find a method to provoke an instantaneous discharge. Then, the involved living units (the 0-s and the -10-s) will make an effort to find a better equilibrium for the living atom 0. This work is also translated into energy units, and we call it output energy (out). We find that the input energy is generally greater than the output energy.

in > out

This is because the discharging living units are very intelligent, and they are doing their job with the least possible effort. On the other hand, the input is done by not so perfect devices invented by humans. Meanwhile, science tells us that energy can not be lost, and that it is just transformed into another form?!

  • Electric technology has devised numerous ways to deviate the 0-s of the molecules to produce electric tensions. Even more numerous are the methods to produce electric discharges. It would take several volumes to deal with all the electric phenomena. In this brief study, I just want to point out the advantages if we explain the electric phenomena with the help of the Living Atom Theory.

  • Let us consider the experiment illustrated in Figure 10-05. This electric circuit is made of a 12 volt battery (or a 12 volt direct current generator) and a ~800 metre long and 0.000001 metre2 copper conductor, which means that the distance between Point a and Point b is ~400 metre. In this condition, the ammeter will measure an intensity value of about 1 ampere. According to the presently accepted theory, an electric current is created by the flow of hypothetical subatomic units called electrons. We are told that the electron is negatively charged, and the current is caused by the displacement of the electric charges. By guessing the number of electrons in 0.000001 metre2 section of a copper wire, we can calculate the speed of the travelling electron. We find that in this particular case, this speed is about 0.00007 metre/second.

  • This means that an electron starting at Point c would take ~130 days to arrive at Point a. The electric current starts instantaneously along the whole length of the conductor. Thus, there must be a mysterious telecommunication system which orders the electrons to move all along the conductor. Some textbooks refer to this as a sort of electrostatic field which propagates with the speed of light, but the mechanism of this field and its origin are not clear.

  • The electric current and the moving electron hypothesis are now more than a hundred years old. During this time, countless numbers of scientific books and encyclopedias have perpetuated the existence of those travelling electrons. No wonder that this fragile hypothesis has become a kind of scientific dogma! Today, nearly everyone claims to understand what an electric current is.

  • To explain an electric circuit, shown in Figure 10-05, with the help of the Living Atom Theory, we can begin by saying that it is an artificially sustained and constant discharging process. The molecules in the generator's terminal points (Point a and Point c) are ready for the discharge because all along the conductor, a strong discharging tube pattern has been created. However, a complete discharge is impossible because the artificial device which we invented continuously "repolarises" the molecules.

  • It is easy to create a discharging tube pattern with a copper wire conductor. The characteristic of the 0 units inside the copper molecules is such that the orientation of their axis can readily change. Figure 10-06 shows an enlarged portion of the copper conductor.

  • There are two kinds of discharging tube loops.

    1. The -1 loops outside the conductor. They can be detected by a compass, and also provide the forces which deviate the needle of the ammeters and the voltmeters.

    2. Inside the conductor, discharging tubes are created in the intermolecular spaces (00). There are plenty of unstable -10-s on the borderlines between the 00-s. By creating the discharging tubes, the unstable -10-s become stabilised.

  • Of course, the direction of the discharging loops must be the same as the direction of the polarisation loops -1 in the generator's terminals. It is the polarisation loop which initiates the formation of the discharging tube. This happens instantaneously. It propagates with the speed of light. The direction of the -1 loops determines that of the arrows, as shown in Figure 10-06. During this discharging process, each copper molecule of the conductor will slightly be discharged and repolarised. Each molecule will have an average tension value with continuous, slight variations. This means that the axis of the 0-s will start to vibrate because of this back and forth changes between polarisation and discharge. The frequency of this vibration is in the order of about 1013 hertz.

  • At this point, the heat sensor "organ" 0a of the atomic sun reacts by increasing the temperature, which we can observe. Explaining the heat created in an electric conductor by using the Law of Energy Conservation is very unsatisfactory indeed.

  • In electrical technology, we often create a discharging process in which the direction of the 0 axis is completely reversed every 1/60 of a second. This is known as an alternating current (AC) with the frequency of 60 hertz.

  • The directional organ 0b of the 0 planets and the directional organ -1b of the -10 free atoms work so fast that for them, 1/60 of a second is like an eternity. Researchers sometimes create similar discharging circuits through different chemical substances in an attempt to measure the electric resistivity or conductivity of these materials. Sometimes, they get very surprising results. In some molecular structures, the discharging tube pattern can be drastically altered.

  • This phenomenon can be explained if we consider that, in the case of radiation, we have a kind of pattern made up of unstable -10-s that I call dispersing tube. (See Chapter 09.) This dispersing tube has exactly the same kind of structure as the discharging tubes in electric circuits.

  • I also explained how each atom 0 creates some kind of radiations as some tiny 0 particles are being ejected from its body. This is the "transpiration" mechanism of a living unit. The magnitude of the dispersing tubes depends on the number and characteristic of the 0 particles. In a copper conductor, the effect of the dispersing tubes is negligible. But in some substances, it is the combination of the discharging and dispersing tubes which determines the resultant -1 loop pattern. For example, if we use the substance Selenium, then the -1 loop can have only one direction, and can readily serve as a useful device called electric rectifier. If we use other substances like Germanium or Silicon, then the resultant discharging tube pattern is such that we can amplify its importance by influencing it with some polarised molecules. These Nature-created intermolecular devices are the transistors which are today replacing the old vacuum tubes and triodes. And the variety of those resultant discharging patterns is endless due to the different characteristics of the 0-s and of the 0-s. No wonder, therefore, that new intermolecular devices are daily being discovered. They constitute the "High-Tech" of today's scientific technology.

  • When science tries to explain the mechanism of such devices (sometimes called semiconductors) with electrons in motion, a huge confusion occurs. Some textbooks describe electron holes which behave like positively charged particles?

  • I think that such explanation belongs in the domain of science-fiction. The moving electron hypothesis is becoming shakier.

  • I will finally outline an interesting experiment which I conducted. One can frequently read that salt water conducts electricity. Here is what I did to test the validity of this claim.

  • After connecting two plastic containers with a ~1.5 metre long plastic tube, I tried to establish an electric circuit with the help of a direct current (DC) generator, as shown in Figure 10-07.

  • The tube and the conductor were placed in a north-south direction with a sensitive compass needle above each one, as the diagram illustrates. When I closed the switch , I was surprised to notice that only the compass needle above the conductor registered a slight deviation. This observation led me to believe that within the tube, there is no electric current or moving electrons. However, the inserted ammeter constantly indicated an intensity value of ~0.01 amperes. This clearly suggests that a discharging tube pattern is established in the conductor.

  • To establish this further, I devised a second experiment, as shown in Figure 10-08.

  • Here, I simply removed one of the electrodes! To my surprise, the ammeter still continued to register the same intensity value! In other words, this was an electric "circuit" that was not closed, thereby contradicting any notion of electric current and moving electrons! However, there was a discharging process, which is the basic condition for electricity, as I already mentioned at the beginning.

  • How can we explain this discharging process? When we dissolve salt () in water, a chemical reaction occurs which creates a lot of positively and negatively polarised molecules. Science calls these "ions", but I consider them molecules whose planetary axes have been drastically deviated (0).

Remark: When living atoms 0 decide to form a new kind of "confederation", it is understandable that some -10 free atoms are obliged to change their patterns. Occasionally, some important polarisation loops are created, and 0 axes are deviated. As we know, there are some very effective means of creating electric tensions. In the salted water, the negatively polarised molecules , which are near the electrode, are continuously discharged by the positively polarised molecules of the electrode's surface, as shown in Figure 10-04. This discharging process slightly diminishes the tension value of the electrode.

  • Suppose that the voltage difference between the terminals of the DC generator is 500 volt, and the voltage difference between the electrode and the terminal is 499.9999 volt. Then, the voltage difference between the terminal and the electrode is 0.0001 volt. If the resistance of the conductor is 0.01 ohm, then an intensity value of 0.01 ampere will be measured by the ammeter (as can easily be calculated with Ohm's well-known equation).

Conclusion

  • If Science had to abandon the hypothesis of moving electrons, then it would necessarily be forced to rewrite a great multitude of scientific writings. This is regrettable, but I am convinced that a better understanding of electricity will ultimately enhance future research in this domain.

11 |THE PARADOX OF MOVING ELECTRONS

The Paradox of Moving Electrons

  • In the following article, I hope to provide physicists and students of physics with a tool that may help them gain a better understanding of the mystery known as "electric current".

  • According to presently accepted theories, an electric current is caused by some moving electrically charged particles called "electrons". Some texts use the name "free electrons" or "conducting electrons". It is believed that each atom of an electrical conductor contains at least one conducting electron.

  • This electron has a negative electric charge of 1.6 x 10-19 coulomb. We can even evaluate the number of conducting electrons in different conducting metals with the help of the famous Avogadro constant (6 x 1023 mole). So, we find that in 1 metre3 of copper conductor there are ~8.4 x 1028 conducting electrons, and in 1 metre3 of aluminum conductor there are ~5.5 x 1028 conducting electrons. In order to investigate this notion of moving electrons, I realised the following experiment.

  • Figure 11-01 illustrates a pendulum with a 2 millimetre diameter and 100 millimetre long copper rod attached to a 3 metre long fine thread. A sensitive soft spring was inserted in order to detect an eventual force acting upon the copper rod.

  • Two strong permanent magnet bars were fixed on a rolling support which was able to move perpendicularly to the surface of the drawing. When I push the magnets with a velocity in the direction towards the viewer, the situation is similar to a moving rod in a standing magnetic field, as shown in Figure 11-02. (Note that the magnetic induction vector is directed towards the reader, its sign is , and it is directed from north pole to south pole.)

  • If the velocity

= 0.5 metre/second

and the magnetic induction

= 0.5 weber/metre2

we can calculate the force acting upon one conducting electron. It is

= 0.5 metre/second x 0.5 newton/(coulomb x (metre/second)) x 1.6 x 10-19 coulomb = 0.4 x 10-19 newton

This force is vertical in the upward direction.

  • There are 2 possibilities.

    1. We could suppose that this force is transferred to the structure of the copper rod. Then, with a huge number of electrons, this would create a huge upward force acting upon the rod. My experiment clearly demonstrates that such a force DOES NOT EXIST!

    2. We could suppose that, due to this force, the electrons start to move upwards in the rod. Then, the upper end of the rod will be negatively and the lower end positively charged. The opposite charges equilibrate the vertical forces, and the spring can not indicate any force. Meanwhile, there is the following paradox: The vertical movement of the electrons must be done instantaneously with a relatively high velocity. Then, another force will act upon the electron (this time in the horizontal direction) which is calculated with the formula

= x x

where is the velocity of the electron, is the magnetic induction, and is the charge of the electron.

  • Remark: According to the moving electron theory, it is such a force which actuates the electric motors.

  • In my experiment, considering the huge number of electrons, this would result in an instantaneous strong horizontal force acting on the copper rod, and the pendulum would start to swing. We can demonstrate that THERE IS NO SUCH HORIZONTAL FORCE! I must conclude that the moving electron theory is illogical and wrong. We should introduce a new theory to explain the mystery of electric current!!

  • Many physics textbooks introduce the induced electromotive force with the example of a conductor with length which is moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field with a velocity , as shown in Figure 11-03.

  • The induced electromotive force is calculated with the formula

= x x

If is expressed in metre/second, in weber/metre2, in metre, we get the value in volt.

  • With such a short rod, it is very difficult to demonstrate or to measure an electric tension between the and charges. Using a sensitive voltmeter, we must close the circuit and a little current intensity is necessary to actuate the instrument's needle. Furthermore, the conductor should constantly move, bringing it to rest the charges disappear. However, the induced electricity really exist, otherwise we could not have electric generators or electricity in our houses.

  • In order to demonstrate the electric induction, I realised another experiment. This time, instead of a copper rod I attached on the pendulum a conductor forming a closed loop, as shown in Figure 11-04. With such an awkward asymmetrical form of the loop, I obtained a better result.

  • If we start to move a bar magnet near point of the loop, we can manage to create a horizontal force and a torque which will rotate the loop in the horizontal plan. By changing the polarity of the magnet or the direction of its movement, we can easily rotate the loop in each direction as shown (direction 1 or 2).

  • It is absolutely necessary to have a closed loop circuit. If we cut the loop, the force can no longer be created.

  • It seems that the change of the magnetic flux line pattern rather creates an "electric current" which circulates in the conductor's loop. Then, the value of the induced electromotive force is automatically determined by multiplying the intensity of the "current" with the ohmic resistance of the conductor (according to the well-known Ohm's law).

  • By cutting the conductor's loop, the resistance get nearly infinite and the intensity becomes zero.

  • So, it is true that electricity is created (induced) when a conductor moves in a magnetic field. Meanwhile, a force is also created and the direction of this force is such to oppose the conductor's movement. Nature is obliged to create such a force, otherwise an electric generator would become a "perpetuum mobile". This phenomenon is also explained by the well-known Lenz's law.

  • To more precisely explain this force, it is very useful to visualise the picture of the magnetic flux line patterns. This can be done with the help of short arrows where the arrow indicates the direction of the magnetic induction vector . (See Figure 11-05.) The sign indicates a conductor perpendicular to the drawing.

  • The flux line pattern caused by the north and south pole of the magnet is distorted by the circular pattern caused by the "current" in the conductor. There is a strong concentration of induction vectors near point . This acts like a compressed spring system, and a force is created as shown.

  • After such an explanation, we should admit that the existence and the name "electric current" are superfluous and unnecessary. All the work is done by the circular flux line pattern.

Remark: If there are no moving electrons, there is no electric current either. The concept of "electric current" is a kind of PHANTOM invented by the science. When we measure the intensity with an amperemeter, we just evaluate the importance of the circular flux line pattern.

  • Some textbooks, dealing with electromagnetism, use the picture of flux line patterns in order to explain magnetic forces. However, they mention that those flux lines do not have any IDENTITY, and they are used only for pedagogical purposes.

  • Over a number of years, I have attempted to give an identity to the magnetic flux lines. In other words, I tried to introduce a real existing natural entity which could create such flux line patterns. This pattern could then become a real existing structure which is able to create and support magnetic forces.

  • This is a new hypothesis and a new theory which perfectly unifies electricity and magnetism, and it is a huge simplification in the science of physics.

  • In this article, I dealt only with the problem of "electric current". Infinite is the variety of circular flux line patterns. My theory explains that circular flux line patterns are also created inside the conductor's material and even in the vacuum tubes.

  • Another special flux line pattern is created inside the molecules of the matter. This pattern explains all the phenomena in connection with electrostatics.

12 |WHAT IS MASS IN PHYSICS?

What is Mass in Physics?

  • It was a clever choice in Physics to start with the 3 basic indefinables, namely the length, the time, and the mass. With their help, we can deduce and measure the followings: volume, surface, velocity, acceleration, momentum, force, torque, pressure, work (or energy).

  • It is not difficult to understand what length or time is. Much more difficult is to precisely determine what mass is. This study is intended to deal with all those difficulties.

  • An arbitrary standard unit was chosen which is called 1 kilogramme of mass. The prototype, a Platinum-Iridium cylinder is kept in Sevres near Paris at the International Bureau of Weight and Measures. We can compare the mass value of any object with the standard unit by using an equal-arm balance. However, this measure still does not explain what mass is.

  • There are 2 basic equations which are used in Physics trying to define the concept of mass.

    1. The first is the mathematical form of Newton's second law of motion. The acceleration () is proportional to the force () which causes it.

= .

where is the value of mass. This is a natural law recognised by Isaac Newton. With the help of this equation, the unit of force is defined. 1 Newton is such a force which causes 1 metre/second2 acceleration on 1 kilogramme mass. Then, some physics books try to define the concept of mass with the quotient

= /

This definition is ambiguous. It is bizarre to define the mass with the help of the force which was previously defined with the mass.

    1. In the second basic equation

= .

it is the weight () which accelerates a body of mass (), and is the acceleration of gravity. The weight is a force, too, and it is mainly caused by the gravity. Gravity is still a mysterious problem in Physics. We only know its effects. By defining the mass with the quotient

= /

we introduce the same kind of ambiguities.

  • The difference between

= . and = .

is obvious. In

= .

the value of acceleration is not restricted. It can be from - to +. However, with too high positive or negative acceleration, the equation is irrelevant because the structure of the accelerated body can be destroyed. The

= .

is valid only if each elementary unit of the accelerating body is strictly tied together.

  • In the equation

= .

the value of is restricted. It varies only slightly in different points of the earth. Furthermore, by measuring the weight (or the mass), we can introduce a slight error. The weight depends on the temperature! More precisely, the weight depends on the volume of the molecules. We know that in the case of a rigid body this error is quasi negligible, but dealing with a gaseous molecule, the

= .

equation is irrelevant.

  • The difference between

= . and = .

inspired some physicists to consider 2 kinds of masses. The

= /

was called inertial mass, and the

= /

was called gravity mass. In some books, several pages are sacrificed to deal with this ambiguous problem. It is an unnecessary complication which charges the brain of physicists and students. Finally, they are obliged to admit that there is no difference between inertial and gravity masses, and they still have not explained what mass is!

  • In Newton's time, it was assumed that the mass of an object is concentrated in one point, and the force acts on this point. This is an idealised situation. Later, the French mathematician d'Alambert (1717-1783) introduced the idea that the product . should be considered as a different force which acts in the opposite direction of the force . He called it "inertia force". In the history of Physics, d'Alambert's idea was neglected. (He probably did not have enough media support!!) However, each passenger in a train or a car feels the effect of the inertia force when the vehicle accelerates.

  • In modern Physics, there is a tendency to deal with this inertia force in the framework of an accelerated coordinate system. So, it becomes a kind of mysterious force called "apparent force". The concept of apparent force caused several errors in Physics.

  • For me, it is important to prove that the inertia force is a real force. I need this proof in order to precisely determine what mass is. It can be done with a simple experiment which everybody can easily realise. We just have to use a shopping cart from a department store.

  • The sketch in Figure 12-01 shows an empty shopping cart. If we apply a strong horizontal force on the handle as shown, the cart starts to accelerate. With a sufficiently strong acceleration, we can observe that the front wheels of the cart are lifted up. This phenomenon is only possible if a REAL inertia force creates a couple with the force , and the value of this couple is ( . ) x or x . This couple changes the load on the wheels because another couple - is created. If the cart is empty, the upward force prevails, and the front wheels are lifted up. So, the existence of a REAL . inertia force is proven. The vector of this force passes through the centre of gravity () of the cart, as it will soon be explained.

  • Another typical example also proves the existence of a real inertia force. When a vehicle runs on a curved trajectory, an inertia force is created which is generally called "centrifugal force". It passes through the centre of gravity of the vehicle, and it obviously changes the load on the wheels.

  • The most important problem is to analyse in detail this force which is created by the acceleration.

  • Let us note that an acceleration always creates a force. On the other hand, equilibrated forces do not cause accelerations.

  • This . is not a single force. IT IS THE RESULTANT OF BILLIONS OF ELEMENTARY INERTIA FORCES.

  • Each elementary unit of an accelerated rigid body is individually affected by an inertia force.

  • As a first step, let us suppose that the elementary unit has a mass value of e. Then, we can write that the resultant force

. = e .

All those e . forces are in parallel. The action line of the resultant force passes through a point which I would prefer to call "centre of inertia".

  • The centre of inertia is the same point as the centre of gravity. This similarity does not give us the right to unify inertia with gravitation as Einstein did.

  • The most crucial question is: How far should we go in the direction of infinite little to determine this elementary unit? Considering the molecule or the atom as elementary unit is not sufficient. Scientists are presently trying to discover even smaller subatomic particles, and it seems that even those particles are divisible. Sooner or later, we must admit that we can not limit Nature in the directions of infinite little and infinite big.

  • It is interesting that, in the science of mathematics, we precisely defined the concept of infinity. The scientific opinion is that we sometimes need mathematics to understand Nature's mysteries. Then, I find it ridiculous that physicists still have the tendency to limit the universe in the directions of microcosm and macrocosm.

  • The idea that Nature works with infinity is not new. In the year 1600, the Italian physicist Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake because he argued that the universe is infinite. It contains an infinite number of worlds which are inhabited by intelligent beings.

  • The existence and the character of the inertia force OBLIGES us to accept the infinite little elementary units. This also gives us the possibility to precisely determine what mass is.

  • I offer a new hypothesis, a new theory called the Living Atom Theory, which explains the method of how to reach this infinite little elementary unit.

  • In this short article, I just mention that we should introduce an atom which has exactly the same structure as our solar system. Only the dimensions are different. I gave the character 0 to signal this atom. The 0 is an elementary unit of the solar system. A logical deduction indicates that the 0 similarly has its elementary unit which I characterised with the sign -1.

  • The -1 has the same structure as the 0. So, we must have a whole series of atoms

0, -1, ..., -n

approaching always more the infinite little.

  • With this perspective, each object in the solar system is the sum of a huge number of -n-s. Let us denote the mass value of -n by |-n|. Then, the mass of each object can be written

= |-n|

If the object is accelerating at the rate of , there is a quasi infinite number of elementary inertia forces |-n| . .

  • The 0 atoms are different, and they have different weights or mass values. For example, let us compare an 0 atom of the element Aluminum with an 0 atom of the element Iron. The Iron atom is more than twice as heavy (approximately). Considering the elementary -1 atoms, there is probably some slight difference between the mass values |-1|, but it is much more probable that the NUMBER of -1 atoms is approximately twice as much in the Iron 0 atom as it is in the Aluminum 0 atom.

  • Note: Inside the 0 atom, we can no longer consider the weight only as the value of mass. The concept of weight is defined only in the gravitational field of the solar system. Inside the atom 0, there is a different kind of gravitational field, as it is explained in Chapter 02.

  • As we go in the direction of infinite little, the mass value of the -n gets insignificant, and it is the number of -n-s which determines the mass value of an object.

  • So, we can conclude that, in Physics, the mass of a body is expressed by a relative NUMBER indicating the importance of an atomic agglomeration. In a mass of 2 kilogramme, there are 2 times more elementary units as in a mass of 1 kilogramme.

  • It is completely illogical to suppose that such a NUMBER varies with the velocity of the moving object. Einstein's transformation equation, which relates the mass to the velocity, is a nice mathematical exhibition indeed, but it is easy to demonstrate that the starting point of his mathematical deduction is wrong. For more complete argument to demonstrate this, read Chapter 06.

  • Physicists who still believe in the validity of Einstein's relativity theories still do not understand what mass or inertia really is.

  • It is reasonable to say that Newton's

= .

formula is the basic equation of dynamics. It was originally intended to give a relation between force, mass and acceleration. It would be more precise to say that only the absolute values of and . are equal. I would prefer to use a vectorial equation

= - .

which better explains that the force acts in opposite direction of the force . . Then, this equation explains a marvellous natural law. Nature always assures a perfect dynamic equilibrium for all moving objects.

  • In the universe, all movements are accelerating. The velocity characterises the movement only INSTANTANEOUSLY. Nature does not tolerate a perfect constant velocity.

  • Even the accelerations are not constant, but a practically constant acceleration can be achieved in the case of rotation.

  • To conclude, one must seriously question any theory that attempts to limit Nature's wonderful ability to manifest itself in an infinite number of ways. This is exactly what some scientists are trying to do, by introducing various universal constants.

13 |THE MAGNETIC FORCES

The Magnetic Forces

  • Solving the mystery of electricity and magnetism is perhaps the most important achievement of the Living Atom Theory.

  • For a long time, we knew that electrically polarised bodies and magnets produce forces which results in attraction or repulsion between them. In my writings, I prefer to use the expression "electric polarisation" instead of "electric charge".

  • The French physicist Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736 - 1806) made the first quantitative investigation of electrostatic and magnetic forces in 1785 using a torsion balance. He summarised his finding with the following equations:

(1 x 2) / 2

and

(1 x 2) / 2

  • In words, this means that the attraction or repulsion force () is directly proportional to the product of electric charges (1, 2) or magnetic pole strengths (1, 2), and inversely proportional to the square of distance (2) between them. With different charges or different poles, there is attraction. With similar charges or poles, there is repulsion.

  • We will designate North () side of a magnet which deviates a compass needle the same way as the north pole of the earth. We designate positive () such polarisation which is obtained when a glass rod is rubbed against silk.

  • Coulomb's equations are simple and attractive. They were the basis upon which electric and magnetic units were derived, but they simply do not express the real nature of electricity and magnetism. To be valid, the charge () and the pole strength () would have to be centred at one precise point which, of course, is just an approximation. In the case of real bodies and moderate distances between them, the distance () is uncertain which makes Coulomb's equations quite irrelevant.

  • By introducing these two fictitious units ( and ), the science irrevocably separated electricity from magnetism. However, the phenomenon called electric current cannot be separated from the magnetic field. Furthermore, electricity can be induced by changing magnetic fields. Consequently, in Physics we find several different chapters dealing with this subject, like Electrostatics, Magnetostatics, Electric Current, Electro-magnetism, Magnetic inductions.

  • This diversity results in a bunch of complicated bizarre mathematical formulae. For physicists and students, it is a very hard task to digest them.

  • The beauty and simplicity of the Living Atom Theory is amazing. Everything can be explained with the different patterns created by just one elementary unit which I called FREE ATOM in my writings.

  • Expressing the attraction and repulsion forces with the same equation is perhaps the worst error of Coulomb's law. There is a huge difference between them. In this short study, I focus to explain only the magnetic attractions and repulsions.

  • Magnetic attraction is Nature's strong tendency. It can be achieved with only one magnet acting on any ferromagnetic body. As for the repulsion, two magnets are absolutely required. We also need a special device which oblige them to work in repulsion. I made some very simple experiments, and I hope that everybody who is interested in magnetic forces will do them.

  • To study the repulsion, I constructed a device as shown in Figure 13-01. A guiding rod (made from non-ferromagnetic material) obliges the magnets to work in repulsion. We can see that the weight of the upper magnet is matched by the repulsion force as though an invisible compression spring existed between the two similar sides. The principal axis of the magnets must be aligned. With only the slightest asymmetry, a considerable horizontal force occurs which tries to overturn one of the magnets.

  • This overturning tendency can be demonstrated with another simple experiment. If we place two permanent magnet bars ( and ) on a slippery horizontal surface (Figure 13-02) and we fix magnet , we can readily observe how aggressively magnet overturns in order to achieve an attraction.

  • We can state that the magnetic repulsion is just an attempt of the magnets trying to change the repulsion into attraction.

  • Another interesting result can be achieved by trying to diminish the gap between the two identical poles in our setup of Figure 13-01. We have to push the guiding rod down with a force stronger than the repulsion. According to Coulomb's equation, one would expect the force of repulsion to increase, but in actual fact we observe a strong overturning tendency, and the repulsion force does not increase. Even more surprising is that if the strength of the two magnets is different, the repulsion eventually turns into attraction, and the two similar sides are sticking together!! This strange behaviour can be explained only with the help of the Living Atom Theory.

  • A graphic method is the best to explain magnetic forces. Physics has traditionally used imaginary flux line patterns to represent magnetic fields or magnetic circuits. The Living Atom Theory goes one step further, and considers the flux lines as really existing structures which are able to support the magnetic forces.

  • All forces in Nature rely on some supporting structure. Introducing the notion of forces without counter reaction forces has been one of the most confusing achievements of modern Physics.

  • For simplicity, it is handy to draw only two REPRESENTATIVE flux lines. So, the picture of a permanent magnet bar would be such as shown in Figure 13-03. A representative flux line is a kind of average which allows us to explain magnetic forces. In reality, there are several billions of different flux lines. Furthermore, the pattern is not steady at all. It can change several billion times in one second in order to assure the best living equilibrium for its elementary units.

  • The flux line has a vectorial characteristic which is indicated with a short arrow . The direction of the arrow merely indicates the North () or South () side of the magnet. The actual magnetic pole is just an irrelevant notion!

  • The flux lines always form enclosed loops. In the air (or in vacuum), they have the tendency to shorten (like stretched rubber bands). A shorter line is more stable. They also prefer to pass through ferromagnetic materials which reinforces their stability.

  • To briefly review Chapter 03, the elementary units within the flux lines are called SECONDARY FREE ATOMS, and they are represented by the sign -10. Dealing only with magnetic forces, we can omit the index -1. So, the short arrow in Figure 13-03 also represents the elementary unit of the flux line.

  • We have in this unit a very tiny self-governed (living) gyroscope which is embedded in a globe of elastic medium as shown in Figure 13-04. The space of the universe is completely filled up by -10-s (inside and outside the matter). We should imagine that in a volume of 1 cubic millimetre, there are approximately 10100 -10-s. When a flux line pattern changes, there are always different -10-s involved.

  • There are stable and unstable -10-s. The unstable ones have the tendency to form enclosed loops in order to increase their living equilibrium.

  • Let us go a step further, and consider two adjacent -10-s that are squeezed together with forces . (See Figure 13-05.) The system acts as a compressed spring, with the elastic medium insuring the proper function of the gyroscopes, never allowing them to touch.

  • The direction of the rotating axis has a vectorial characteristic, which is indicated by the arrow.

  • Also, one should recall that a configuration or increases the vital equilibrium of the -10-s. Conversely, a configuration is intolerable, and an immediate change in the flux line pattern occurs.

  • In Figure 13-06, we have two magnets with adjacent and sides. At points and , the configuration is . Then, the flux line patterns are disrupted, and the new picture is like in Figure 13-07.

  • In this situation, there is a strong attraction force between the two magnets because of the tendency to shorten the flux lines. The flux line pattern is the supporting structure of the force!! This is an excellent example showing how illogical it is to introduce magnetic attraction forces without supporting structures between two different poles.

  • To further our understanding of magnetic repulsion, let us look at Figure 13-08. At points and , we have the stable pattern which acts as an invisible compressed spring as it was explained earlier in connection with Figure 13-05. However, this situation is quite idealised with the two magnets being perfectly aligned. It is more usual in Nature to find some asymmetry. Then, we have to consider the picture as shown in Figure 13-09. It is obvious that at points and , the compression spring works in such a direction that there is a tendency to overturn one of the magnets and transform the repulsion into an attraction.

  • In the original device (Figure 13-01), the guiding rod prevents the overturning of the magnets. When we push the rod down with a force greater than the repulsion, the intelligent flux line pattern will take a more stable position as shown in Figure 13-10. The repulsion force will not be increased as predicted by Coulomb's law. Such a pattern can even be observed using a sensitive compass needle.

  • The picture (Figure 13-10) is valid only if the two magnets are equally strong. Generally, one magnet is stronger than the other. Then, we should consider the picture Figure 13-11 where magnet is stronger than magnet .

  • The dominating flux lines of magnet are partly passing through the lower part of magnet . This lower part is then acting as a ferromagnetic material which is strongly attracted by magnet . The similar sides are sticking together!! It is interesting that if we separate the magnets, they will not lose their strength, but the flux lines will return to their original position as shown in Figure 13-03. This strange behaviour definitely contradicts some principles of today's Physics. Meanwhile, it proves the existence of intelligently acting flux lines, and it strongly supports the Living Atom Theory.

  • To make use of the attraction and repulsion forces of permanent magnets to create continuous movements was always a dream of some inventors. Such attempts generally end in failure. Most physicists and engineers simply dismiss any such notion since such a machine would be a "perpetuum mobile" which violates the basic natural law called "first law of thermodynamics" or "energy conservation".

  • I suggest that the energy conservation is NOT a natural law, but it is merely a concept introduced by human science.

  • Whereas a horse can easily be harnessed to provide useful work, the subatomic living units are much more astute, and will only work to improve their vital equilibrium. When we try to upset this equilibrium, the effort we are required to invest is greater than that generated by the subatomic units as they regain their original equilibrium.

  • Possibly, the most interesting attempt to harness the work potential of magnets was done by Joseph W. Newman, an inventor from Lucedale (Mississippi, U.S.A.). Having already discussed in some detail Newman's Energy machine in my previous text, I will only briefly review his concept.

  • His basic idea is simple. Even a compass needle would continuously rotate if by some magic the direction of the earth's magnetic field were to be switched twice during each revolution.

  • Although we are unable to change the earth's magnetic field, one could easily change the magnetic field created by a solenoid coil, which is what Newman did. The diagram of such a device is shown in Figure 13-12

  • The only delicate problem is the precise commutator switch which should be activated by the rotating shaft.

  • Once I assembled this apparatus, I observed that the permanent magnet turned vigorously even if the Ammeter showed only negligible current consumption!!

  • The commutator switch transforms the solenoid current into an intricate electro-magnetic vibration. It behaves like an "alternating current". If the inductance value of the solenoid is high enough, the energy consumption is minimised. (Like in the primary coil of a transformer which is not charged.) Fortunately, the magnetic field of the solenoid works even in this condition, and the rotation of the permanent magnet is assured. This behaviour is probably the most interesting aspect of Newman's machine!

  • Sceptic physicists might claim that this device is merely an example of an electric motor which is driven by the energy of the battery, but their argument is weak! The battery's only function is to rapidly change the magnetic field of the solenoid. The actual work is done by the rotating permanent magnet. If this work equals the amount of current consumption plus loss due to friction, then we have a motor with 100% efficiency.

  • It would appear that this would approach the definition of the "perpetual mobile".

  • However, this "energy machine" does not really fit into this category, since permanent magnets working in such a setup will gradually lose their strength.

  • Newman's machine really works with a VERY high efficiency! It can serve as an excellent tool for physicists and students to observe the work done by the "living" magnetic flux lines.

  • This will eventually lead Science to explain the "energy conservation" in a different way.

14 |THE SOUND

The Sound

  • The sound wave is a phenomenon which can correctly be explained only with the help of the Living Atom Theory. The science called Acoustics has numerous aspects. In this short chapter, I would like to deal with the following:

    1. To analyse the medium in which the sound wave propagates.

    2. To study how the concept of energy can be associated with the sound.

    3. To study what happens with the sound in vacuum.

The Structure of the Sound Wave

  • When an elastic structure is deformed with an amplitude and it reacts with an opposing force

= - x

then a vibration occurs. In Physics, it is generally assumed that the factor is a constant. This is an opportunity to write some spectacular mathematical equations. According to the Living Atom Theory, forces are created by the muscles of living subatomic units, and they can change several million times during one period of vibration. Therefore, it is obvious that the factor is not exactly constant. This means that the nice and simple picture of vibration, which is described as a sinus function, is just an idealised situation.

  • It is regrettable that this fact is rarely mentioned in the physics books. It is rather supposed that nature obeys our mathematical equations.

  • When a vibration occurs in an elastic homogeneous medium, it can propagate as a wave. The sound wave is one example.

  • The sound wave mainly propagates in the air in order to reach our hearing system. To explain how the atmosphere can act as a perfect elastic medium is a delicate problem. Numerous physical and chemical facts suppose the contention that matter is composed of tiny elementary particles called MOLECULES. It was found that the dimension of an air molecule is around 10-9 or 10-10 metre. The distance between molecules is about 10-7 metre, a hundred times more than the molecule's dimension. This means that in a volume of air, the volume of molecules is quasi negligible!

Remark: When we indicate dimensions in the microscopic world, we are mainly just guessing. However, it helps us to better understand the problem, and to make some logical deductions.

  • Furthermore, there is a very interesting natural tendency to keep the molecules at certain distances. Air molecules can never collide!! By diminishing the distance between them, a gradually increasing repulsion force is created.

Remark: This fact completely contradicts the so-called the "Kinetic Theory of Gases". In Chapter 02, I explained how illogical this kinetic theory is.

  • It is very naive to suppose that between the molecules there is just nothing. It must be a special kind of structure which is still a mystery in Physics. This structure must accomplish the following tasks:

    1. It keeps the molecules at certain distances.

    2. When a molecule starts to vibrate, this perfectly elastic structure transfers the vibration to the other surrounding molecules. This is the only way to create sound or ultrasound waves. The variety of vibrating frequencies is amazing. It can be between 20 and 5 x 105 vibrations in one second.

    3. This structure acts individually on each molecule with a force trying to push it in the direction of the earth's centre. This means that the medium between molecules also creates that which we call "gravitational field" in Physics.

    4. A molecule can be affected by different forces. If those forces are not equilibrated, the molecule starts to move in order to find its new equilibrium in the space. Then, this structure must be able to assure free passage for the molecule.

    5. Each movement starts and finishes with accelerations. This structure must act differently in the case of slow or fast acceleration. With slow acceleration, the security of the molecule is not yet jeopardised. With fast acceleration, the situation is different, as I will soon explain it.

  • With the Living Atom Theory, we can explain this marvellous medium which separates the molecules. To start, we should consider the basic hypothesis that some subatomic units are self governed. We can call them "living units". (For more details, see Chapter 02.)

  • The most important achievement of the Living Atom Theory is the introduction of the FREE ATOM. The free atom has only an atomic sun, and it doesn't have planetary units. In Physics, the atomic sun is generally called "nucleus", and the planetary unit is sometimes called "electron". I find it important to use the name "planetary unit" or "atomic planet" because the word "electron" could cause some confusions.

  • According to the Living Atom Theory, the earth is a planetary unit in a huge atom which we call "solar system". In my text, I call those with planetary units "heavy atoms". (Our solar system is a heavy atom.) The molecules and the matter are always built up by heavy atoms.

  • Dealing with the sound waves, we have to consider two kinds of free atoms:

THE PRIMARY FREE ATOM

  • It is indicated with the sign 00 in my text. We can visualise it as shown in Figure 14-01. There is a tiny gyroscope which is a self governed living unit. It also represents the sun of the free atom. It orients its axis in a direction which is the best for its living equilibrium. Let us not forget that plants and flowers are acting similarly.

  • An innumerable variety of patterns can be formed with the direction of the gyroscope's axes. They are always enclosed loops, and they are acting like stretched rubber bands. Such a pattern creates forces, and it also supports the reaction forces. The pattern can change several million times in one second.

  • The 00 gyroscope is embedded in an elastic structure which protects it and assures its proper function. So, the whole 00 is like a tiny elastic cushion. Let us suppose that its dimension is around 10-12 metre, at least 100 times as small as the dimension of the molecule.

  • All molecules are completely surrounded by 00 primary free atoms. In other words, the matter of the universe is embedded in an infinite "sea" of 00 free atoms.

  • The situation is similar in fluids and rigid bodies. Only the distances between molecules are less, and they are attached together with some elastic bands, as I already explained in Chapter 03. It is no wonder that sound waves are propagating even in fluids and rigid bodies. However, the character of such waves is slightly different because the movements of molecules are restricted.

  • We can imagine a 300-millimetre diameter soccer ball which is embedded in tiny 3-millimetre diameter elastic balloons. If somebody would kick in such a ball, the impact would be transferred by the little balloons to another ball which is ~30 metre apart. The sound wave propagates similarly. The vibration of a molecule is transferred to the other molecules by squeezing the protective medium of the 00 free atom.

THE SECONDARY FREE ATOM

  • The protective structure of the 00 is constructed by secondary free atoms. To indicate them, I used the sign -10. So, the -10 is an elementary unit of the 00. It is also an elementary unit of the heavy atom. The picture of -10 is the same as it is shown in Figure 14-01. It has similar characteristics. Only the dimension is different. We should imagine a tiny elastic ball with 10-36 metre in diameter.

  • A huge quantity of -10-s are quasi affiliated to the sun of the primary 00 free atom. I call them stable -10-s. There are stable -10-s also around the sun and the planetary units of the heavy atoms. This is a kind of "gravitational field". According to the Living Atom Theory, the unit which is today called "atom" in Physics has its special gravitational field constructed by -10-s. Similarly, the gravitational field of our solar system is built up by 00 free atoms. Furthermore, the gravitational field of the 00 acts like a living "shock-absorber" system which is able to create and sustain the vibration of the molecules.

Remark: There are unstable -10-s, too. They are filling up the voids between the 00 free atoms. Considering that -10-s are also filling up the space INSIDE the molecules, we can state that the space of the universe is completely filled up with -10 free atoms.

  • The "shock-absorber" system works with the help of the -10 gyroscopes. This gyroscope represents the sun of the secondary free atom. When the gyroscope's stable pattern is deformed, the living gyroscope starts to work in order to regain its original position.

  • The gyroscope's muscle is super-sensitive. The pattern can be changed about 1044 times in one second. This easily accommodates frequencies of 5 x 105 per second which seems to be the highest frequency of ultrasonic vibrations. Furthermore, even during one period of vibration, the gyroscope's pattern can act with different forces. This explains the innumerable variety in the sound's quality. Fortunately, our hearing system is built up by similar ultrasensitive organs.

The Sound and the Energy

  • When the molecule, embedded in an elastic medium, vibrates, it also causes some local pressure variations. The vibration's amplitude is called "pressure amplitude", and the sound is specified as a longitudinal pressure wave. Our eardrum can be affected only by such pressure variations. It was found that the average human ear is sensitive to pressure variations between 28 newton/metre2 and 2 x 10-5 newton/metre2. Of course, those pressure variations are working around the atmospheric pressure which is about 100 x 103 newton/metre2.

  • With the help of a mathematical operation, the effect of the pressure can be expressed in sound intensity () which can be measured in watts/metre2 units. The intensity level indicates the loudness of the sound. By knowing the value at a certain point of the wave, we can evaluate the necessary electric power which we should invest to create a sound with such intensity.

  • It is an obvious fact that the pressure amplitude and the intensity gradually diminish as the distance from the sound source increases.

  • It is probably the watts/metre2 unit which inspired the science of Physics to associate the sound wave with energy. It is stated that sound waves and all other waves are propagating energy. For example, it is often mentioned that heat energy is carried from the sun to the earth via electro-magnetic waves?!

  • If we measure the work done by some living muscles with the help of energy units (like erg, joule, metre-kilogramme, kilowatt-hour, calorie, BTU, etc.), it is correct and useful. However, such a wandering energy which travels from one place to another place is clearly only for the laymen. For a physicist, who is able to meditate individually, such kind of energy is a dark mystery. In the case of sound waves, not only the intensity but this phantom of energy diminishes, too, as the wave propagates.

  • This is a paradox! According to the energy conservation law, the energy can not disappear. It must be transformed into another form of energy.

  • The sound energy is transformed into what form of energy?? This question was never answered. It is surely not heat. Otherwise, the howling of a crowd in a sport stadium would help to heat up the building.

  • The gyroscope of the secondary -10 free atom explains the mystery. It works for a while as a kind of "shock-absorber" to assure the security of the vibrating molecule. Being an intelligent living unit, its interest is to stop the vibrations as fast as possible because, far from the sound source, the molecules are out of danger. The work done by the gyroscope's muscle is not classified in Physics as a useful energy for the human technology.

  • Let us compare the sound vibration with the swinging of a pendulum or another human-constructed spring system. This time, with the help of mathematics, we can introduce two kinds of energies, namely the kinetic and potential energy. They are playing an interesting "ping-pong" game during each period of vibration, indicating how easily one energy can be transformed into another energy. This is misleading because such an easy transformation works only with those mathematically introduced energies.

  • The swinging of a pendulum stops sooner or later unless we continue to add some efforts to the system. The kinetic (or potential) energy gets lost. It is stated that there are frictions which create heat, and the heat energy is dispersed into the atmosphere. This is partly true, but it is never mentioned that only a very little percentage of energy is transformed into heat. The rest is mysteriously lost like in the sound waves, and the energy balance does not work.

  • With the free atoms, the picture is clear. Sometimes, the distance between molecules is brutally diminished as if we strike a rigid body with a hammer, or if a rigid surface is sliding on another rigid surface. Then, the "shock-absorber" system between the molecules is not able to take the whole impact, and the structure inside the molecule (more precisely, inside the heavy atoms) is affected, too. This means that some secondary -10 free atoms inside the molecule are squeezed.

  • Squeezing the -10-s inside the molecule can create different phenomena, as I explained in Chapter 04. One of them is the creation of heat. Meanwhile, the -10 gyroscopes are working hard to save the molecule's structure. The value of this work can not be included in the balance of energy conservation!

  • It is no wonder that such brutal collisions are also causing vibrations in the surrounding molecules inside the rigid bodies or in the air. So, sound waves are also created.

  • The air molecules (or gaseous molecules) are individually moving in the space if they are affected by a non-equilibrated force. Figure 14-02 shows the special pattern of 00 gyroscopes around the molecule which acts like a stretched rubber band and creates the e elementary force. This force pushes the molecule in the direction of the earth's centre.

  • If a stronger force than e pushes upwards, the pattern over the molecule voluntarily changes, and takes a new position under the molecule by assuring free passage for it. In the case of horizontal movement, the gyroscope's pattern just follows the form of the molecule.

Remark: Such a drawing shows only a kind of cross-section. In reality, we should rather imagine an elastic pellicule instead of an elastic band. This does not change the situation. Each 00 gyroscope in the space finds the best position to assure its vital equilibrium. The force e is created anyway.

  • The shock-absorber system (built up by -10 gyroscopes) acts separately. When the acceleration of the molecule is slow, its action is quasi negligible. With stronger molecular acceleration, the shock-absorber works aggressively before the 00 gyroscope reacts. Then, the molecule starts to vibrate, and sound is created.

  • We can realise how important the action of the -10 gyroscope is. It starts the vibration, it sustains the vibration for a while, and it also stops it. The -10 secondary free atom is a marvellous intelligent living unit!!

  • Figure 14-02 is valid also inside a rigid body or in a fluid. So, the molecular vibration can also start in a rigid body or a fluid even if the molecule can not move individually. However, sooner or later, the vibration must propagate in the air in order to reach our hearing system.

  • The extreme beauty of the free atom type "gravitational field" is that the free atoms are FIXED in the space of the universe.

  • Everything is done by just changing the patterns of the 00 and -10 gyroscopes. When a molecule moves, only the suns and the planetary units of the heavy atoms inside the molecules are moving. The gravitational field inside the molecules changes about 1044 times in one second, and always different -10-s are involved.

  • We can better understand this if we consider that our solar system is also moving in the galaxy. Then, only the sun and the planets are moving. The gravitational field rests fixed in the space.

  • I conclude by saying that we can much more logically explain the sound waves with the free atoms than with the phantom of energy.

The Sound and the Vacuum

  • In the year 1654, the German inventor Otto Guericke demonstrated the powerful effect of the vacuum. Since then, the vacuum technology was gradually perfected. Today, inside an airtight rigid container, we can realise such a vacuum that the atmospheric pressure is nearly zero. However, we will never be able to realise a perfect vacuum.

  • To understand the atmospheric pressure, we should take another look at the sketch in Figure 14-02. The effect of the elementary e force is transformed into pressure with the help of tiny elastic cushions, namely the secondary -10 free atoms. The whole atmospheric pressure is the result caused by all e forces which are overhead us. We are living on the bottom of an atmospheric "sea".

  • It is obvious that the presence of air molecules is absolutely necessary to create the atmospheric pressure. In an airtight container, if we diminish the number of molecules, we diminish the atmospheric pressure, too.

  • However, we should suppose that the temperature of the molecules rests constant. For gaseous molecules, the effect of temperature is another story which I already explained in Chapter 02.

  • Let us imagine two rigid airtight containers ( and ) with equal volumes. They are connected with a pipe and a valve, as shown in Figure 14-03.

  • Suppose that in container there are 2 billion gaseous molecules, and in container 1 billion similar molecules. If we open the valve, 1/2 billion molecules will move from container to container . This movement is caused by forces which are created by the "shock-absorber" system of the surrounding 00 free atoms. Those forces are working until the distances between the molecules will be the same in the two containers. Then, the number of molecules will be the same, too.

  • We can realise that the hypothesis of gravitational attraction, which is fully accepted in today's Physics, does not work in the case of gaseous molecules.

  • It is not precise to state that the higher pressure in container pushes air in container . In an airtight container, it is the number of molecules which determines the pressure or the vacuum.

  • Figure 14-03 also explains how a vacuum pump works. In this case, container acts like a vacuum pump. It diminishes the pressure in container .

  • Thanks to the free atoms, the atmosphere acts like a self-regulated living unit. It is amazing that even the quality of air is automatically regulated. Air molecules never stop to move which is mainly caused by temperature differences. There is a perfect nature-created mixing mechanism. Therefore, all around the globe, the proportion between Oxygen (2) and Nitrogen (2) molecules is nearly the same. This is a principal condition for human, animal and vegetal life.

  • When Acoustics is taught in the schools, they often make an interesting experiment. In an airtight bell-jar, which is connected to a vacuum pump, they put an alarm clock. When the pump starts to work, the sound of the clock gradually diminishes, and with a strong vacuum, it completely disappears. Consequently, in Physics, it is firmly stated that there is no sound in the vacuum.

  • According to the Living Atom Theory this is obvious even without considering such an experiment. The presence of molecules is ABSOLUTELY necessary to create sound waves! Meanwhile, this experiment also proves that in a strong vacuum, there are only very few air molecules left.

  • With the help of a vacuum jar, an even more interesting experiment can be realised, as it is shown on the sketch in Figure 14-04.

  • There are two steel plates with precisely polished flat surfaces. They are separated by a little air gap. One of the plates is rigidly connected to an alarm-clock (or another noise making device). The other plate is rigidly connected to the membrane of a microphone. The microphone is electrically connected to a loud-speaker, as shown.

  • With a strong vacuum in the jar, we do not hear more the alarm clock, but we still hear a certain noise in the loud-speaker. By manipulating the switch, we can observe the differences between noises. This means that even in vacuum, some vibrations are transferred through the gap between the plates, and this can only be done with the help of the primary 00 free atoms.

  • We have to overcome some difficulties.

  • The gap between the plates should be kept as little as possible. Normally, the free atom transfers the vibration through a distance of about 10-7 metre, which is the average distance between air molecules. It seems that some weak vibrations are transferred through much longer distances if the sound source is strong enough. (We should use a powerful alarm-clock.)

  • To support the arrangement inside the jar is another delicate problem. I already mentioned that sound waves propagate even in rigid bodies and in fluids. If the noise of the alarm-clock is transferred by the support, the experiment is falsified.

  • Fortunately, there are some materials which quasi resist to the sound-wave propagation like mineral wool, foam rubber or other spongy materials. With such a support, the harmful effect can be minimised.

  • There is another fact, too, which proves the existence of free atoms. It is in the domain of ultrasonic vibrations.

  • It is a well-known fact that molecules can vibrate even with frequencies higher than 20 000 per second which is the limit of audible sound vibrations. Ultrasounds are mainly created by electro-magnetic vibrations and some piezoelectric crystals (like quartz). Sometimes, they are called "ultrasonic transducers".

  • In this short study, I just mention that the ultrasonic technology is very lucrative. Companies are trying to fabricate always more powerful ultrasonic transducers. Some of them are advertised to be "vacuum penetrating", and experiments were done to prove this fact.

  • The ultrasound vibration can penetrate only into an elastic medium which is built up by primary 00 free atoms.

  • The introduction of the free atom is a scientific hypothesis. Only with the help of hypotheses, can we try to solve nature's mysteries.

  • In Physics, things like electron, proton, neutron, photon, electric charge, electric current, magnetic pole, quantum of energy, etc. are all just fragile hypotheses! Between them, there are more or less logical and more or less valuable ones.

  • The value of a hypothesis can only be measured with the number of common experienced phenomena which are explained with it.

  • One should read the whole text of the Living Atom Theory, and count the number of phenomena which are explained with the FREE ATOMS.

AA |APPENDIX

Summary of the Signs

  • +2 is a superior solar system in which our solar system +1 is just an elementary unit.

  • +2 is the sun (nucleus) of +2.

  • +20 is the free atom which composes the gravitational field of +3 and +30.

  • +20 is the sun (nucleus) of +20.

  • +1 is the sign of our entire solar system and other similar solar systems in the galaxy.

  • +1 is the sign of the sun.

  • +10 is the free atom which composes the gravitational field of +2 and +20.

  • +10 is the sun of +10 (sometimes called "neutron star").

  • 0 is our elementary atom which composes all matter in our space.

  • 0 is the sun (nucleus) of 0.

  • 00 is the free atom which composes the gravitational field of +1 and +10.

  • 00 is the sun (nucleus) of 00.

  • -1 is an elementary atom composing the matter of 0 and 0.

  • -1 is the sun (nucleus) of -1.

  • -10 is the free atom which composes the gravitational field of 0 and 00.

  • -10 is the sun (nucleus) of -10.

  • -2 is an elementary atom composing the matter of -1 and -1.

  • -2 is the sun (nucleus) of -2.

  • -20 is the free atom which composes the gravitational field of -1 and -10.

  • -20 is the sun (nucleus) of -20.

  • +1 is the planet orbiting around +1 (like the earth).

  • 0 is the planet orbiting around 0 (sometimes called electron).

  • +1 is a piece of inanimate matter in our solar system +1 (composed of 0-s).

  • +1 is a living entity of our fauna in our solar system +1 (composed of 0-s).

  • 0 is a piece of matter in the atom 0 (composed of -1-s).

  • 0 is a living entity in the atom 0 (composed of -1-s).

  • is a general symbol of a free atom +10, 00, -10, -20, etc.

Enlarged Cross Section of the Atmosphere

  • This sketch is out of proportion. The distance between molecules is about 100 times the molecule's dimension.

  • 2 = Nitrogen molecule

  • 2 = Oxygen molecule

  • 0 = Sun (nucleus) of the atom 0

  • 0 = Planet (electron) of the atom 0

  • 00 = Sun (nucleus) of the free atom 00

  • -10 = Elementary unit composing the gravitational space of atoms 0 and 00

  • 00 = 00 -10

  • -10 = -10 -20

ZZ |POSTFACE

Personal Opinion

  • When I introduced the free atoms, I gradually realised that I started a merciless struggle against the officially accepted theories in physics. Should I be sorry for that, or should we admit that science needs sometimes radical changes??

  • In this short text, I could deal only with some typical examples. The unifying power of the Living Atom Theory is tremendous. It would take many more chapters to deal with all the problems.

  • In the future, I would like to receive your questions, and it will be my duty to answer them.

  • Szekely, Etienne <Comments@HyperInfo.CA>

    • 604-362-9474

    • Box 1198

    • Rossland (British Columbia)

    • CANADA V0G 1Y0

References

  • Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases

    • Jeans, James

  • Les Atomes Vivants

    • Szekely, Etienne

    • Box 1198

    • Rossland (British Columbia)

    • CANADA V0G 1Y0

  • The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman

    • Newman, Joseph W.

    • Route 1, Box 52

    • Lucedale, MS 39452

    • U.S.A.

  • The Living Planet Earth

    • Szekely, Etienne

    • Box 1198

    • Rossland (British Columbia)

    • CANADA V0G 1Y0

  • The Universe and Dr. Einstein

    • Barnett, Lincoln

Acknowledgement

  • Provencher, Michèle <MAM.Provencher@HyperInfo.CA>

    • Proofreading

  • Sunatori, Go Simon <GS.Sunatori@HyperInfo.CA>

    • Editor, Publisher, Internet World-Wide Web site

  • Szekely, Blaise <bszekely@ciao.trail.bc.ca>

    • Figures

  • Szekely, Etienne <eszekely@mlc.awinc.com>

    • The Author

 

 

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